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The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage 

from a 

Hieratic Papyrus in Leiden 

(Pap. Leiden 344 recto) 





LEIDEN Pap. / 344 , recto 7 

* T 




. i ; 


Vfrlflff,’/ Cp tf/nrfcA^ UtUtdrlitk Sintft& Co., Ufpzif?-OclzSCfi 










J, C. HINRICHS’schb buchkandlung 


More than live years have elapsed since Dr. H. O. Lange communicated to the lierlin 
Academy of Sciences a short but very remarkable paper on the literary text that occupies the 
recto of the hieratic papyrus 344 of Leiden. The existence of this text had long been known 
to scholars, but its linguistic difficulties and damaged condition had deterred all but a few from 
making it the object of their studies. Its contents were generally agreed to be of didactic 
nature, but no more definite conclusion than this had been reached when Dr. Lange made the startling 
announcement that the papyrus contained the prophetic utterances of an Egyptian seer. 1 his 
statement was based upon a lung and painstaking investigation ot the papyrus, and was accom¬ 
panied by a careful analysis of the whole and by excellent translations of many passages* The 
interest aroused by Dr. Lange's paper was considerable, and the complete edition of the text 
which was promised has been expectantly awaited. It must here be explained why the publica¬ 
tion has been so long delayed, and how it has come about that the book now appears with the 
name of the present writer, and not that of Dr* Lange, on its title-page* 

In the spring of 1905 I made a prolonged stay in Leiden in order to collate, for the 
[>ur[loses of the Berlin Dictionary, the numerous and valuable hieratic papyri preserved in the 
Museum of Antiquities there* living unwilling to let slip so good an opportunity of studying the 
most interesting text in the entire collection. 1 applied to 1 )r. Lange fur leave to compare his 
transcription of Pap. Leiden 344 with the original, and to utilize the results for the Dictionary; 
such additional readings as 1 might obtain would, 1 thought, also be of service to him in the 
preparation of his edition. To this proposal Dr. Lange willingly consented, and explaining that 
his official duties as Chief Librarian of the Royal Library at Copenhagen had prevented him 
from making [lie desired progress with his book, further suggested that 1 should join him as a 
collaborator- After some hesitation ! accepted this attractive offer, and subsequently devoted 
much time to the study of the text. New collations of the papyrus which I undertook in 1906 
and 1907 added a number of inq roved or fresh readings. In the summer of 1906 I had the 
good fortune to be able to read through the entire text with Dr* Lange in Copenhagen. Mean¬ 
while ] had come to the conclusion that certain modifications were required in the interpretation 
of the composition as a whole, aiul man)' details had heroine dearer 10 me* In May 19°/ 
I prepared the autographic plates, mid in October of the same year 1 started upon the writing 
of the Commentary P a preliminary sketch of which 1 was able to submit to Dr, Lange before 
the beginning of December. My three visits to Leiden had afforded me quite exceptional oppor¬ 
tunities nf establishing an accurate text, and mv access to the materials of the Berlin Dictionary 
had proved of inestimable value to me in the compilation of the Commentary. In addition to 



these advantages I hail enjoyed almost unlimited leisure. IV. Lange, on die other hand, had in 
the meantime been impeded not only by liis heavy official duties, but also, 1 regret to say, by 
ill health. In returning my manuscript In March 1908, he wrote that lie now felt that my share 
ot the work had become so great as compared with his, that he was unwilling to take to himself 
the credit of the joint-authorship. Since I)r. Lange declared his decision to be irrevocable, 1 was 
very reluctantly compelled to assent to the loss of the fellow-worker who thus so generously 
abandoned his prior claims in my favour. One need only consult the Commentary to see how 
many valuable observations are due to him, and his own article stands as a permanent record of 
his great merits in connection with die decipherment of the text, Since Dr. Lange will not allow 
his name to be placed upon the title-page, 1 gladly welcome the very pleasant alternative of 
being able to inscribe it in the dedication of this work. 

To Professor Hohverda and Dr. Iloeser 1 am deeply indebted for the liberal facilities of 
study afforded to me during my visits to the Leiden Museum. 1 am under still greater obliga¬ 
tions to Professor Sethe, who not only read through the whole of my manuscript and furnished 
me with many useful suggestions and criticisms, but also devoted some hours of his valuable time 
to discussing with me various points that still remained obscure. Nut a few passages of which 
1 could make nothing have also defied the learning and acumen of Professor Sethe: in such cases 
1 have had the consolation of reflecting that I had sought aid where, if anywhere, it was to 
be found. 

Half of the book was already in type when I became acquainted with the London writing- 
board no. 5645. The texts upon this board proved to be of such interest in connection with 
the Leiden Papyrus that I at once decided, subject to the courteous consent of my publishers, 
to print them in an Appendix to my work. The indications afforded by this new document have 
led me to take up a much more definite position with regard to the date of the composition of 
the Leiden Admonitions, and I must beg my readers not to overlook the concluding remarks on 
this subject at the end of the Appendix. 

The Leiden papyrus is too dark in colour to make a complete photographic reproduction 
desirable. It is my firm conviction that, in the case of defective and worn- documents surh as 
this, no mechanical reproduction can render a study of the original superfluous; and 1 considered it 
better to induce the student who wishes to check the transcription to have recourse to the actual 
document than to offer him an inadequate means of control that would greatly have increased 
the price of the work. 1 have therefore contented myself with giving, as frontispiece, a photo¬ 
graph of the most legible page. The hieratic signs drawn in the footnotes to the autographic 
plates do not claim to be more than approximately accurate. The appearance of Dr. Lange's 
name beside my own on the frontispiece and on the autographic plates is due to circumstances 
above explained, and will doubtless meet witla the indulgence of my readers. 




]. The papyrus, its history, dimensions, palaeography and age . .. , , ... i 

2 . Orthography, language and linguistic connection with other texts ... *.. 2 

3. The facsimile and previous treatments of the text . 4 

4. The contents. ^.* . * , *. . 5 

5. Conclusions. ij 


APPENDIX (BrEf, Mus 5045). u 




1. The papyrus, its history, dimensions, palaeography and age. 

The papyrus 344 of Leiden, like all the hieratic manuscripts of the same collection with 
the single exception of no. 34G, was formerly in the possession of Anastasi, and was purchased 
for the Leiden Museum at the sale of his antiquities in 1828. According to indications furnished 
by Anastasi, it was discovered at Memphis, by which Sakkara is doubtless meant. In its 
present imperfect condition the papyrus measures 378 centimeters in length; its height is 18 cm. 
It is now mounted in book-form, the pages being folded over upon one another so that the 
written surfaces touch; however being protected by a layer of vegetable paper as well as by 
a coating of varnish, the text is in no danger of injury'. At the same time there can be little 
doubt that the mode of treatment which now serves to protect the papyrus has, in the past, 
damaged it to a very considerable extent. The colour has become very dark, especially near 
the edges of the lacunae that are so abundant in the latter part of the recto; here the traces 
of the ink can often be discerned only with the utmost difficulty', 

Both sides of the papyrus are fully' inscribed from beginning to end. The recto, i. e, the 
side upon which the horizontal fibres lie uppermost, consists of seventeen complete and incomplete 
pages of writing, and contains the literary text with which this volume deals. Each page had 
fourteen lines of writing, so far as we are able to judge, with the exception of pages ioand i 1, 
which had only thirteen lines apiece. Of the first page only the last third of eleven lines remains. 
Pages two to seven are comparatively free from lacunae, but in many places the text has been 
badly rubbed. A large lacuna occurs to the left of page eight, and from here onwards the 
middle part of each page is entirely or for the greater part destroyed. The seventeenth page 
was probably the hast; at the top are the beginnings of two lines in the small writing typical 
of the recto; near the bottom may be seen traces of some lines in a larger hand apparently 
identical with that of the the verso. 

The verso contains hymns to a solar divinity, of which a transcription and translation have 
been published by A. Massy 1 . Here the writing is bigger and more regular than that of the 
recto, and is probably to be attributed, in agreement with Dr. Lange, to the 19th. or 20th. 

The scribe of the recto wrote a somewhat small and crabbed literary' hand, perhaps con¬ 
sciously archaistic in character. The blackness of the writing and the closeness of the lines give 

1) Lt Pufynu dt Ltydc I, 344 {rtvtrs) fr&nstrir tt tr&duit par jV Massv, Gaud, Fr. Wacm-Licndcrs and Paris, Finest I-croux, 

(jUrtlmrr, 'The? Ailnioiiitiuiis uf an l-’ty[>li.iii Snjje. 

a certain appearance of neatness to tile pages, hut the shapes of tin: individual signs are very 
irregular and often grossly careless. The only instance of a cursive form that 1 have observed 
is in tlie writing of like pp in hm tc. g. 14, i. 3 1 and in wum'^d) 8, 5, though simple ligatures 

of course abound. In the forms of certain signs (f| 2, ii; contrast 7, 1. 12, 2: die full form of 

pv, det. of kit 3, 1 i; <*==> as det. of krs 6) the scribe is visibly influenced by the hieroglyphs. 

For the vertical determinative of die plural he knows only the form —; the feather Sw p he writes 
without the adjunct (fy) that usually serves to distinguish it from ?nl (\ and | is similarly bereft 
of the stroke at the side that it has elsewhere in hieratic. The distinction between the deter¬ 
minatives of fl and Up in 1,2 is apparently unique; and various rare and curious hieratic forms 

are found: ^3, 12; ^ 5, 8; 7, 12; | 12, 2; 9, 2. 4. 1 2, 1; V 2. 10. In spite of these 

peculiarities it seems impossible to ascribe the writing to an earlier date than die beginning of 
the 19th. dynasty; the form of in 7, 5. 12, 4. 14. 4 is quite late, as is also the writing of 

hw ‘to strike’ (e. g. 4, 6. 9). There are some indications that the manuscript used by the scribe 

was an old one, perhaps dating as far back as the beginning of the 18 th. dynasty. The unfilled 
spaces in 6, 1. 3 , 7. i 3. 11,13 are most easily accounted for if wc assume that the papyrus from 
which the scribe copied was torn or illegible in these places, and the frequent omissions of words 
are perhaps to he similarly explained. The forms of ^ (e. g. 1, 1, 2, 2); ^ (e. g. 2, 4. 5, 61 ; 

7, 13; ^ passim, are archaic, and resemble those found in Ebers, Westcar, and the Berlin 
parchment. In a number of cases the scribe has clearly been unable to decipher his original; 
lienee the meaningless signs in 2, 1. 3, 10. 14. 14, 1. Certain determinatives seem to have occa¬ 
sioned him special difficulty; thus for LJ 1 in mrt 6, 11, in iywd S, 2, and in hn S, i 1 he 

substitutes 0 tl; in 8, 4 ^ takes the place of of which however we find an approximately 
correct form in 5, 4. 

The introductory formulae which divide paragraph from paragraph are always written in 
red until io, 13; from there onwards a more sparing use is made of rubrics. Only the first 

examples of the oft-repeated phrases shlw (10, i 2 foil.) and kv hf hm («/V) (13, 9 foil.) are in 

red ink. There is no other instance of a rubric in the latter part of the papyrus except the word 
ddtn in 15, 13, which marks the beginning of a new speech. Red ‘verse-points’ are found in 

3, 2—3, but not elsewhere. Corrections above the line occur in 3, S. and possibly in S, 5. A 

sign in red, which I cannot read, is found before the beginning of 6, 14 and perhaps refers to 
a graphical error at the commencement of the same line. 

2. Orthography, language and linguistic connection with other texts. 

The spelling is, on the whole, that of a literary text of the Middle Kingdom, if this term 
be interpreted in a very liberal way; it must be remembered that we have no hieratic literal")’ 
texts which can with any certainty be attributed to the iSrh. dynasty. For the retention of an 
ancient style of orthograph)' the text may be compared with the Millingen papyrus, which like¬ 
wise seems to have been copied from a manuscript of some age. The curious addition of 
in ^j twi Pdt 3, 1, Wtkv 3,9, IJlstkv 4, S, finds parallels in the Ramesseum text of Sinuhe 

(e. g. 14.62), and the writing of pg ‘some’ in 7,3. 13,6 is that of Middle Kingdom papyri 



(e. g. Eloquent Peasant B 7,47. 48). On the other hand there are some very clear instances of 
New Egyptian spellings: 2 3 ' 7 - T 3 - 4i 6 i tj 

^ 6,4; 

O @ (WWW T—T 

^ Atawi IT 

1 4 . 5 - 5 .’ 

ITI 6, 11; and the method of appending the pronominal suffix to 

feminine nouns by means of ' in swyi-f 7,13; hryt-f 10,1. The orthography of our text thus 
brings us to very much the same results as its palaeography: the date of the writing of the recto 
cannot be placed earlier than the 19 th. dynasty, but there are indications that the scribe used a 
manuscript a few centuries older. 

The language of the text is that which we usually consider to be characteristic of the 
Middle Kingdom. I have sought in vain for any signs of the influence of late Egyptian idioms. 
A few expressions, as for example m biit in 6, 13, cannot indeed be paralleled from early texts; 
but we have no right therefore to assert that they belonged exclusively to the later language. 
Our text shows, both in its vocabulary and otherwise, quite unmistakcable points of contact with 
two well-known literary texts of the Middle Kingdom, the Gespy tick eines Lebensm'uden ?nit seiner 
Seek and the Instructions of Amenemhet I. The sentence nht hr hib n bw nb in 5, 10 recurs, 
with a very slight difference of reading, in Lebcnsm'ude toy. Other verbal resemblances are the 
particle ms (cf. L. 142. 143. 145), nb '/tzv e. g. 2,5 (cf. L. 33), hit ‘tomb* 2, 7 (cf. L. 52), uhtvl 2, 7 
(cf. L. 148), nhit-lb 12,3 (cf. L. 56), hnty ‘crocodile’ 5,8 (cf. L . 79), ii sp n 5, 13 (cf. L , 122), kinr 
e. g. 4,3 (—hii, L. 59), hws mr 13, 12 (cf. A. 61). The repetition of a phrase or clause to intro¬ 
duce a scries of descriptive sentences is a striking point of similarity in both texts; and the analogous 
use of ddtn in 13,13 and L. 147 is also worthy of notice. 

The number of verbal resemblances between the Leiden text and the Instructions of 
Amenemhet is smaller, and they are perhaps fortuitous; cf. ts skw 1,3 and Miltingen 2,7; nty 
zvn 2,2. 3,14 and Mill. 1,7; hoi e. g. 2,4 and Mill. 1,6. Hut in 6,12—14 we have an entire 
paragraph which reappears, though in a garbled form, in the worse manuscripts of the Instructions. 
The Millingen papyrus is unhappily defective at this point, hut a sufficient number of signs remains 
to show that it contained substantially the same text as our Leiden papyrus, doubtless in a less 
corrupt version than Salher II, This curious fact raises a difficult question. The sense of this 
paragraph and the words employed in it 1 are so perfectly appropriate to our papyrus, that the 
supposition that it was derived from elsewhere would savour strongly of paradox. The alternative 
seems to be that it is a quotation or interpolation in the Instructions. The obscurity of this 
composition is well known, hut the general drift, so far as it can be made out, does not harmo¬ 
nize at all with the pessimistic sententiousness of che paragraph in question. It is not very likely 
therefore that the passage stood, as a quotation from our text, in the archetype of the Instruc¬ 
tions ^ but if not, its occurrence both in Millingen and in Sallier II shows at least that it was 
very early interpolated. It is unsafe to draw any conclusions hence as to the date either of our 
text or of the Instructions. 

This section would be incomplete without some reference to the extreme corruption of our 
papyrus. This will be amply illustrated in the commentary, and a list of errors could be of little 
service. It is not unlikely that the scribe of the Leiden manuscript was himself responsible for a 

1) The introductory formula itv ws Is particularly noteworthy, 
is approximately that of dhv hr kinr 4, 3; for the word mrwt cf. 6, 

For mivt srut 5, 6 may be compared, and the seme of kf m mruti 


Gardiner, The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage. 

considerable number of the mistakes. A particularly large class of corruptions is due to die 
omission of words. 

3. The facsimile and previous treatments of the text. 

A facsimile copy of Pap. Leiden 344 ^ executed by T. Hooibcrg, was published in the 
monumental work of Leeinans*. Though quite inadequate for the purposes of accurate study, 
this copy is nevertheless still serviceable in more ways than one. Not only does it convey an 

approximately correct notion of the handwriting, but it also preserves traces of a number of signs 
now either illegible or completely lost*. A serious error, which was corrected by Plcytc when the 
papyrus was remounted, has been committed in respect of pages 9 and 10 of the recto, a large 
fragment of page 9 being treated (pi. 109) as belonging to page to, and vice versa. 

In the introductory text, by Chabas 8 , that accompanied the publication of the facsimile, 
a first attempt was made to determine the character of the literary text of the recto. Chabas 
arrives at the conclusion that the first eight pages contain proverbs or axioms, while the frag¬ 
mentary pages that follow seem to him to be devoted to a text of philosophic import. 

The next scholar to turn his attention to the recto was Lauth, who after quoting it in 

connection with His unfortunate theory of an Egyptian University at Chcnnu * 2 3 4 , published a com¬ 
plete and very meritorious translation of the first nine pages 5 6 7 . A number of sentences are quite 

correctly rendered; but the view taken by Lauth of the work as a whole is that it is a collec¬ 

tion of proverbs or sayings used for didactic purposes. 

Many sentences are quoted from the recto by Heinrich Brugsch in the Supplement to 
his Hieroglyphic Dictionary. His writings will be searched in vain for some indication of his con¬ 
ception of the text as a whole, but we have it on the authority of Professor Erman that he once 
expressed a verbal opinion that the papyrus contained a collection of riddles. 

Professor Maspcro tells us 5 that the papyrus formed the subject of lectures that were given 
by him at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes. 

No other attempt to elucidate the text has to be recorded until the year 1903, when 
Dr. H. 0 . Lange, in a paper entitled Prophezdungen dues dgyptischen Jidsetd , gave a short 
account of the results to which long study of the recto had brought him. The great merit of 
this article, apart from the excellent transcriptions and translations that it contains, is that the con¬ 
tinuity- of the text, which had thitherto been regarded as consisting of isolated and mutually in¬ 
dependent sayings, proverbs, riddles and the like, is there for the first time clearly enounced, and 
its place among other literary' products of the Egyptians is properly defined. Dr. Lange has 
rightly perceived that the composition belongs to that category of poetical and semi-philosophical 

0 Acgypthsht M&numcnicn van het >W dfrhlrtdstkc Museum van OuJAcdrn it Leyden lie Afd, t 105—125, Hates [05—>13 give 
the facsimile of the recto, plates 114—125 that of the verso. 

2) Having heard from my friend M. Skymour df Ricci that some photographs of the Leiden papyri were among the papers of 
the late Professor Eisenu>hh t 1 inquired of Professor Wekdemann, !□ whose possession these papers now arc, whether 1 photograph of 
Pap. no. 344 was among [hem. In his cqutIcous reply to ray question. Prof. Wif,demans informed me that this was not the case. I have 
not been able to hear of any other early photographs or copies, 

3) Reprinted in French iu llie Rgypt^bgique^ Tome 10, pp. 133 foil. Also to had separately: Fk, Cham VS, A'ottect 

Wmmaires det papyrus hifratiques tgypiitns 1 343—371 du Music d'antiquiih des Pays-Bar a Leydc, Taris, Ernest LeroiiK, 1901, 

4) Ufbtr dir Mtagyptische Hocks tht*ie wn Chmrtu y iu Siizungsherichte det Baycrischert Ahndcmit^ 1S7 2, pp- 29—SS- 

5) Ahiigyptistht LrArspriitke, ibid. 1872, pp. 347—404. 

6) Cauteries tf&gypie, p, 26c,. 

7) Si/lt* Jigskrrirktf dry k\wighehen Ft cussisehest Aha dr uric dir \\*httnsthajfcn m 1903, PP- 6ot—bio. 



books of which the Eloquent Peasant and the Gespr'dch dues Lcbensmiiden are the best-known 
examples. The characteristic feature of this group of Middle Kingdom texts is that, while: the 
setting is that of a tale, the claim that they made to the admiration of their readers lay wholly in 
the eloquence and wisdom of the discourses contained in them. In the case of the Leiden papyrus 
the introductory 7 narrative is lost, but as Dr. Lange has seen, it must have explained the circum¬ 
stances under which the chief personage named, one )pw or Ipw-ior^ came forward to hold a long 
and impassioned harangue in the presence of the king and his people. These speeches, in the 
opinion of Dr. Lange, are prophetic in character; an era of disasters is predicted for Egypt, 
and is even now, as one passage declares, at hand; and it is the king himself who is responsible 
for the calamities the bitterness of which lie is soon to taste in full measure. Dr. Lange lays 
great stress on one passage, the colouring of which, according to him, is quite Messianic; here 
the advent of a saviour is prophesied, a wise and mild ruler who will restore order among his 
people and inaugurate an age of happiness and prosperity. In conclusion, it is suggested that 
the book may have had an historical background, and that the writer had possibly in his mind 
some such political situation as that of the troublous times which preceded the rise of the 
twelfth dynasty. 

The interest awakened by the view of the text thus ably propounded by Dr. Lange has 
been reflected in the writings of various eminent scholars. Besides a review by Maspero recently 
reprinted 1 * , Eduard Meyer has discussed the Leiden papyrus in its bearing upon Hebrew pro¬ 
phecy', and Reitzenstein 3 4 and Wilcken* have dealt with it in connection with certain fragmentary 
prophetic texts from Egypt written in Greek. 

4. The contenls. 

It has already been seen that our papyrus has suffered grievously at the hands of Time. 
The beginning is lost; a first inspection of the fragmentary pages at the end would seem to 
indicate that the conclusion also is missing, but we shall later show cause for rejecting this view. 
The contents of the last eight pages have been reduced by lacunae to about one half of their original 
bulk. In addition to these external deficiencies, the possibility or probability of textual corruptions has 
to be weighed in almost every line. It is hardly strange, under these circumstances, that the inter¬ 
pretation of the whole should give rise to many difficult and often insoluble problems. A consecutive 
translation of the text, given without comments, would not only be incomprehensible, but also could 
hardly be made without the tacit assumption of some definite conception of the entire composition. 
We must therefore be content with an analysts illustrated by quotations. In the course of the discussion 
an attempt will be made to show the relation of the different parts to one another; many ob¬ 
scure and defective passages will be ignored altogether or dismissed in a few words. 

The Egyptian author divided and sub-divided his book, or rather the greater part of what 
is left of it, by means of a small number of stereotyped introductory formulae, which consist of 
a few words or a short clause usually written in red and repeated at short intervals. New 

l) CauurUi d*Egypt*, pp. 265 — 27]* 

2} Die IsraeliUn und ihre pp, 451 — 455 . 

3] Em Sf&tk heHtdhiiicher Khitjiittcratur p In NuthrithUn der kgt, Gticliieft. der JPm. in Gottingen, phil.-hht. Kl. p 1904, Heft 4 
pp. 309—322. 

4) 7 .ur i'igypfisthtn PropheHe t Hermit 40+ (1905), pp- S 44 —560. 


Gardiner, The Admonitions of nil Egyptian Sage, 

reflexions or descriptive sentences are appended to these formulae, which thus form as it were the 
skeleton or the framework of the whole. There is a change of introductory formula only when 
the writer tires of the constant reiteration of the same words; or when the theme of his discourse 
demands a different style of preface. This monotonous mode of composition is also found in 
parts of the LebensmYtde , in the hymn to Scsostris Ill from Kahun and in the so-called poetical 
stele of Thutmosis IIP. 

From 1,9 to 6. 14 we find each section or paragraph introduced by the words 
and it is probable that the same formula would have been found in the lines 1,1 —1,8, if we 
had them complete. In 7, 1 


I t 

<w«w(|p is substituted for ho and >s used in a 
similar way until 9, S. In 9, 8 and the following lines the introductory word is In 10, 3—10, 6 

a single section beginning with the rubric OCcurs > an ^ seems to conclude the 

purely descriptive portion of the book. The subject of this (1,1 — io;6) is the downfall of Egypt, 
depicted in great detail; the writer tells of civil war and foreign invasion, and of the social upheaval 
attendant thereupon; the poor arc in the place of the rich, want and misery prevail, handi¬ 
crafts are abandoned and no imports come from abroad. Then follow two series of exhortations; 

the first, from io, 6 to 10, 12 has as its burden |1^ r? ©(,<£_) l * * ie 

second, beginning in 10,12, is characterized by the repeated word followed by infini¬ 
tives, -_ injunctions to ‘remember’ various ceremonial acts and religious observances. A long 

section without prefatory formulae starts somewhere between 31, S and 11,12, ending only in 13,9. 
The first part contains the ‘Messianic' passage to which Dr. Lange called special attention. This 
leads into a passionate denunciation of someone who is directly addressed and who can only be 
the king; after which the text reverts to the description of bloodshed and anarchy. Less gloomy 

thoughts form the theme of the sentences introduced by J] @ ^> from x 3<9 to 

the middle of page 14; here the joyous incidents of happier days are recalled, in deep contrast to 
the sinister utterances that precede. After a long lacuna we next find ourselves in the midst of 
a passage referring to warfare and to relations with foreign peoples: an obscure passage that 
becomes totally unintelligible after 15,2. In 15,13 begins a new speech, announced by the words 
^ H The s ' xteem h P a g e < s very fragmentary, 

and the last traces of the text occur in 17,2, 

The sentence in 15,13 just quoted acquaints us with two of the dramatis personae of the 
book. One Is a man named Ipuwer*; the other is the king. A speech of the king must have 
preceded, as Ipuwer is here represented as replying to him. Since however there is good evi¬ 
dence 3 that the person addressed in 12,12 foil, is the king, it is plain that the beginning of the 
king's speech will have to be placed in the lacunae of the fourteenth or in those of the fifteenth 
page. Now a thread of continuity can be traced from the very beginning of the papyrus down 

l) The last-named texts are poetical, and the repeated words may be there fitly termed a refrain. No doubt also in our text 
the repetitions seemed to the Egyptian ear to heighten the style, and to give it a certain grandeur JUld solemnity. But to reality they were 
merely a clumsy device for facilitating the work; of the writer. Ite seems to hare imagined that these pegs on which he hung his reflexions 
dispensed him from any more refined and logical arrangement of his theme. 

2} The reading of the name is not certain, aluI still less so, of course, its pronunciation. To avoid the constant use of notes of 
interrogation, 1 shall henceforth employ the form Ipuwer* 

3) Sec later, and also the note on the passage 11—■ 3 r 9 



to the middle of page 14, so that this must be regarded as a single discourse, No other 
person besides Ipuwer and the king being anywhere alluded to by name, there can be little doubt 
that Ipuwer is here the speaker throughout. It must however he noted that other hearers were 
present besides the king, for Ipuwer occasionally employs the second person plural 1 2 . We shall 
hardly err in supposing them to have been the courtiers assembled around the king. 

The analogy of the Eloquent Peasant, of the Instructions of Ptahhotp and of the Lcbens - 
rntidc confirms what indeed is apparent from the text itself, namely that a short narrative must 
have introduced and preceded the lengthy harangue of Ipuwer. This narrative, had it been pre¬ 
served, would have told us all that we need* to know about the personality of Ipuwer, and about 
the circumstances that led to his appearance at the court of Pharaoh. One possibility is that he 
had suffered, like the peasant in the Berlin tale, some personal wrong, which made him appear in 
his own eyes as the typical victim of .a maladministration that had plunged the entire land in 
ruin and misery. But this theory is not favoured by the general tenor of his words, which seem 
to be rather those of a preacher or of a sage. It is more plausible to suppose that he had 
been sent for by the king, who wished to consult him for some particular purpose, or that his 
coming was voluntary, perhaps prompted by some mysterious heaven-sent impulse, like that which 
drove Sinuhe out upon his wanderings in distant lands. At all events it is clear that Ipuwer was 
no dispassionate onlooker at the evils which he records. He identifies himself with his hearers in 
the question what shall we do concerning it? evoked by the spectacle of the decay of commercial 
enterprise [3, 7. 13); and the occupation of the Delta by foreigners (4, 7), and the murderous 
hatred of near relatives for one another (5, 10), wring from him similar ejaculations. Occasionally 
he speaks in his own name, using the first person 8 ; so in the lament Woe is me for the misery of 
these times! (6, 8), and perhaps in the wash of 6, 5 Would that 1 had raised my voice at that time, 
that it might save me from the pain in which I am! And after regarding the land shorn, like a 
mown field, of all its former magnificence, he cries (5, 14—6, 1); Would that there might be an end 
of men, no conception , no birth! O that the earth would cease from noise, and tumult be no more! 

Do the descriptions of 1, 1 —10, 6 refer to the future or to the present? I11 other words, 
was Ipuwer a prophet, one whom a special visionary' gift enabled to forecast, even in the minutest 
detail, a coming era of disaster and misfortune? Or was he a mere spectator, whose eye dwelt 
compassionately on the misery' of his country', as he beheld it overwhelmed by calamities un- 
mistakeably real and present? Dr. Lange, as we have seen, held strongly lo the hypothesis of 
prophecy. For my own part, I am convinced that the other view is the correct one. It would 
be wrong to insist overmuch on the personal note sounded in the speech of Ipuwer, and upon 
the occurrence of the word 'today’ (3, 6. 5, 1) and of the correlated ‘yesterday’ (2, 2. 4, 5); for pro¬ 
phets in all ages are apt to represent their predictions as realized, and when they describe the 
day of retribution their imagination paints it as not merely imminent, but as actually there. On 
the other hand it is justifiable to urge against Lange's view the extreme wealth of detail in these 
ten pages of description; even in a post even turn prophecy of the clumsiest kind there is a limit 
to the minuteness with which future tilings may be foretold, and that limit is clearly overstepped 
by our author. Again the particle ms, which is so frequent in the first six pages, implies, if I 

]) Thus in i f 7 imd 5, 7 foil., unless Ipuwer is here putting words into the mouib of some fictitious person. Further in !he Formula 
miin 7 t i foil., and m the imptTitives io, 6 fblb* and shi-j? io, [2 foil., the subject of which is referred to by ihc suffii -in io 11,6—7* 

2) Cncertam instances are also 4, 10. jj, 11 


(iardiner, The Admonitions of ail Kjjy[itian Sage 

] rightly diagnosed its meaning 1 * , a certain nuance of surprise or reproach that the state¬ 
ments which it prefaces have not obtained a greater degree of recognition; this means that 
Ipuwer narrates nothing that is not already familiar to his hearers. Moreover it seems to be 
hinted that the present miseries were presaged long ago; they were foretold by the ancestors 
(r, i o), and decreed in the time of Horns (1,7). Cumulatively these arguments have some force, 
but we must look beyond the descriptions themselves for die best evidence. In 10,6 foil., Ipuwer 
charges his hearers to destroy (he enemies of (he Residence, hardly, one would think, foes whose 
acts of hostility lie in the still distant future. Nor are the exhortations to piety in 10,12 foil, 
really intelligible, unless they are to be regarded as the remedy for ills already existent. The deci¬ 
sive passage however is 12,11 foil., where the king is denounced as the true cause of the 
ruinous condition of the land; It is confusion that thou bringest throughout the land together with 
the noise of tumult. Behold one man uses violence against the other. People transgress (hat 
which thou hast commanded. If three jneu loath upon (he road, they are found to be two; the 
greater number slays the less (12,12 —14). Note especially the final sentence addressed by the 
sage to the king: Would that thou mightcsl lasle some of these miseries, then wo it Ids t thou say.... 
(13,5—6). Dr, Lange himself admits that present, not future, calamities must here be meant®. 
But if here, why not also earlier? Lastly, the brief characterisation of a happier age in 13,9 foil, 
can, so far as 1 am able to see, only be understood as an ideal picture which the speaker intro¬ 
duces in order to contrast with it the stem realities of the present. 

The artificial mode of composition employed by the author led him to spend but little 
pains upon the internal arrangement of the long descriptive passage ],i — io,6. The introductory 
rubrics are here more than once changed, but the changes do not seem to be accompanied by 
any real progression in the thought 3 . The entire context from i,i to io,6 constitutes a single 
picture of a particular moment in Egyptian history, as it was seen by the pessimistic eyes of Ipuwer, 
The details of this picture follow one another in haphazard fashion, in which little or no design 
is apparent 4 . Here and there, as is inevitable, adjacent sections touch upon similar or identical 
topics. More often the occurrence of a word in one section seems to have suggested to the 
author the subject and the phraseology' of the next 5 . But still more often there is no link, either 
logical or philological, to connect a paragraph with its neighbours 5 . If therefore we wish to learn 
the nature of the disasters described by Ipuwer, wc must group his utterances in more syste¬ 
matic order. 

i) See the note on i t 9, 

5] „Iis scheiDt, dass hieT den Kdnig anredet und zeigen will, dass die Verwirrung im I.andc schon da ist T nnd da* durch 

Schuld des Kbnigs". 

3) The words that follow tht first occurrence of mitn in 7, 1 might seem to casta, doubt upon this statement; The fre ha s Mounted 

up on high, its burning gotth forth against the enemies of the hind, Tf however we carefully scrutinize the paragraphs succeeding this sentence 

wt shall perceive that the details there described are of the same kind as those depicted in the tint sU pages, they are not a whli more 

terrible ihan those, and clearly belong to the same extensive picture. How then is the section above quoted to be explained? I fancy 
that it is a fictitious device of the author to justify his abandonment of the introductory formula /w mj, of which hr has at list grown tired* 
The modern reader will certainly not feel that any apology for this course was nttdful, but the writer seems to have done so. He there¬ 
fore pretends that he is going to describe calamities still more horribly and having thus salved his conscience, proceeds in much the same 
way as thitherto. 

4) There are several repetitions of whole sections, which imply justify this depreciatory criticism; 4, 3—4 = 5,6, 4,4 = 6,14; 
4-4—5 = S- 12 ->3- 

5) Cf. ‘female slaves' and dns in 4* 13—14. both words occur in the foregoing paragraph. Note too jAJ ^divulge' in 

three consecutive sections 6,3—6; h’wrzo in 6, 10 and 6,11; ifrwt S, S and Ipst S p 9; itnyzis 'butchers’ thrice within a very short distance of 

each other ICh 12; 9,1* There would be uo difficulty in finding more instances. 

6) The second page affords a good illustration of ihh. 



The Egyptians are engaged in warfare, and the whole country is up in arms. The face 
is pa/ef) The bowman is ready. The wrongdoer is everywhere. There is no man of yesterday 

(2, 2), , , .. full of confederates. A man goes out to plough with his shield (2, 1). 

The door\-keepers] say: let ns go and plunder. The confectioners . The bird\-ealchcrs ] 

draw up in line of battle . [ The inhabitantsr\ of the Marshlands carry shields. The 

brewers . A man looks upon his son as his enemy (i, 1—5). A man smites his brother 

(the son) of his mother. What is to be done ? (5,10). A man is slain by the side of his brother. 

He . . to save his {own) limbs (9, 3). [He who has] a noble lady as wife, her father 

protects him. He who has not . {they) slay him (8, 8—9). [Aleu's hearts] are violent. 

The plague, is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere. Death is not lacking (?) The mummy- 
doth (?) speaks , before ever one draws near to tiff) (2, 5 — 6). The river is blood. Men drink 
of it, and shrink from {the taste of?) people. Men thirst after water (2, 10). 

Several of these sentences indicate that the Egyptians are not merely fighting against 
foreigners, but against their own countrymen too. Mention is twice made of the “enemies of the 
land ": The fire has mounted up on high , its bunting goetk .forth against the enemies of the land 
(7, 1); No craftsmen work, the enemies of the land have spotlif.) its craftsQ) (9,6). By this 
expression rebels arc perhaps meant; so too we read; Men have ventured to rebel against the 

Uraeus , the . of Re, which pacifies the two lands (7, 3—4). Something of this kind must also 

be intended by the mysterious allusion in A few lawless men have ventured to despoil the laud of 
the kingship (7, 2 -—3). With traitors within, Egypt has also to face the aggression of foreign 
invaders from the North: The Desert is throughout the Band. The names are laid waste. 
A foreign tribe from abroad has conic to Egypt (3,1). The Delta is overrun by Asiatics: The 
Marshland in its entirety is not hidden. The North land can boast of trodden ways. What shall 

one do ?. Behold it is in the hands off) those who knew it not like those who knew it. The 

Asiatics are skilled in the arts of the Marshlands (4, 5—8). So deep a root have these barba¬ 
rians taken in the land, that they arc no longer distinguishable from true Egyptians 1 : The tribes 
of the desert Q) have become Egyptians^) everywhere (1,9). There are no Egyptians anywhere 
(3, 2). Tentsf) arc what they {the Egyptians) have made like the desert tribes (10, 1—2). It is 
tempting to conclude from one injured passage (3, 10— j i) that the Egyptian kingdom recog¬ 
nized by the writer was at this time restricted to the country between Elephantine and Thinis: 
Elephantine and Thim'sf) [are the dominion of:] Upper Egypt, (yet) without paying (axes owing 
to civil strife. Nor is this limited area immune from the disasters that have befallen Lower 
Egypt: The ship of the ( Southerners\ has gone adrift (?) The towns arc destroyed. Upper Egypt 
has become dry [wastes?] (2, 11). 

In consequence of civil war 3 and the prevailing anarchy men are openly robbed. The 

ways are . The roads are guarded. Men sit over the bushes until the benighted {traveller) 

comes, in order to plunder his load. What is upon him is taken away. He is belaboured with 
blozvs of the stick , and slain wrongfully (5, m -12}. The plunderer [A] everywhere (2,2). The 
land turns round as does a potter's wheel. The robber is a possessor of riches. ( The rich man) 
|iy become}] a plunderer (2,8—9). Property is destroyed: Gates, columns and walls are con¬ 
sumed by fire (2, 11). Boxes of ebony are broken up. Precious acacia-wood is cleft asunder (3,3). 

1} The sentences here quoted tire however ;i]l somewhat dubious 

a) //ijY l civil vir' 3, [ t, 7* 6. 13, 2.. 
ft ardin c r, 



Cnrdiner, The Atlmaititions of an Kpyjuian Sajje. 

The valuables thus wantonly wasted are not replaced by foreign imports: A T o longer do men sail 
northwards to \/Jyblos\. What shall we do for cedars for our mummies , with the produce of 
which priests arc buried, and with the oil of which [chiefs\ are embalmed as far as Kef tin. 

i'hey come no more. Gold is lacking, the . of all handicrafts is at an end (?) (3,6—8), The 

Egyptians should consider themselves lucky if they still receive the paltry tribute of tlic Libyan 
Oases: What a great thing it is that the people of the Oases come with their festival spices Q) 

. with fresh redinet-plants . ‘ (3, 9—10). The products of Egypt itself are lacking. 

Lacking are grain (?), charcoal ... The products of craftsmen . the 

palace. To what purpose is a treasure-house without its revenues ? Glad indeed is the heart of 
the king, when 'Truth comes to him! (3, ii—12). Neediness and want are everywhere conspi¬ 
cuous. Princes arc hungry and in distress (5, 2). Noble ladies go hungry; the butchers are 
sated with what was prepared for them (9, j —-2). [Men eat] herbs , and wash {them) down with 

water. No fruit (?) nor herbs arc found {for) the birds . is taken away from the mouth 

of the swine (6,1—2). Corn has perished on every side. {People) arc stripped of clothes, spices (?) 
and oil. livery body says: there is none. The storehouse is ruined. Its keeper is stretched on 

the ground (6, 3—4). noble ladies. Their limbs arc in sad plight by reason of {their) rags. 

Their hearts sink (?) in greeting [one another ?] (3. 4). Men arc like gm-birds. Squalor (?) is 
throughout the land. There is none whose clothes arc white in these times (2, 8). 

Arts and crafts are at a standstill: everyone nowadays is a warrior (1, 1 — 4). No crafts¬ 

men work. The enemies of the land have spoilt (?) its crafts (?) (9, 6). Nile overflows, {yet) no 
one ploughs for him. Every man says: we know not what has happened throughout the laud 
{2, 3). Indeed men are scarce; many die and few are born. Men are few; He who places his 
brother in the ground is everywhere (2, 13—14); Women are lacking , and no {children) are 
conceived. Khmtm fashions {mankind) no more because of the condition of the land { 2,4). Hence 
cattle are left to stray , and there is none to gather them together. Each man fetches for himself 

those that arc branded with his name (9, 2—3). 

The political organization of the land is in the utmost confusion. No offices arc in their 
{proper) place, tike a roaming herd without a herdsman (9, 2). The laws of the judgement-hall are 
cast forth. Men walk upon (them) in the public places . Poor men break (hem up (?) in (he streets 
(6, 9 —11). The great judgement-hall is thronged by people entering and going forth. Poor men 
come and go in the Great Houses (6, 12). The splendid (?) judgement-halt, its writings are taken 

away. Laid bare is the secret place .(6, 5—6). Ofjices arc opened , and (their) census-lists 

are taken away. Serfs become lords of serfs (?) (6,7—8). \Officials\ arc slain and their writings 
are taken away. Woe is me because of the misery in this time\ (6, S). The scribes of the twi{m), 
their writings arc destroyed. The corn (?) of Egypt is common property (6,9). The poor man 
has come to the estate (?) of (he divine Ennead. That {former) system of the houses of the Thirty 

is divulged (6, ) 1). The judges of the land are driven out throughout the land. (The .) 

are driven out from the houses of kings (7,9—10]. The strong men of (he land, the condition 
of the people is not reported {to them'’!). All is ruin (9, 5—6). [He -who gathered in :] (he 
corn (now) knows nothing thereof. He who never ploughed [for himself ]. [The 

reaping ?] takes place, but is not reported. The scribe in his office f), but] his hands arc 

[idle }J within it (9, 7—8). 

The social order is reversed, so that slaves now usurp the places of their former masters. 


I I 

The general condition of the country is compared, in a passage quoted above, to the turning of a 
potter’s wheel {2,8). He who possessed no property is (now) a man of wealth. The prince praises him 
(S, i — 2). The poor of the land have become rich , and (the possessor) of property has become one zvho 

has nothing (S, 2). have become masters of butlers. He who was a messenger (now) sends another 

(S, 2—3). He who had no dependents (?) is (now) a lord of serfs, lie who was a (notable) docs commis¬ 
sions) himself (9, 5). Abolished is the performance of that for which they are sent by servants tn the 
missions of their lords , without their being afraid (10, 2). All female slaves are free with (heir 
tongues. When their mistress speaks, it is irksome to the servants (4, 13— -14). Cold and lapis lazuli , 

silver and malachite , cornelian and bronze , stone of Ycbhct and . arc fastened on the necks of 

female slaves . Good things are in the land. { Yet) the mistresses of houses say: would that we had 
something to cat (3, 2 — 3). The possessor of wealth (now) passes the night thirsting. He who 
begged for himself his dregs is (now) the possessor of bowls full to overflowing (?) (7, io — 11). 
Poor men arc become owners of good things. He who could make for himself no sandals is 
(now) the possessor of riches (2,4—5). This has happened (tot) men: he who could not build 
himself a cell is (now) possessor of walls (7, g). He who could make, for himself no sarcopha¬ 
gus is (now) possessor of a tomb (7, 8; cf. too the next section). He who never built for himself 

a boat is (now) possessor of ships (?) He who possessed the same looks at (hem , but they are not 

his (7, 12). He who had no yoke of oxen is (now) possessor of a herd. He who could find for 
himself no oxen to plough with is (now) possessor of cattle (g, 3— 4). He who had no grain is 
(now) the possessor of granaries. He who had to fetch for himself tibt-corn (now) sends it forth 
(9, 4—5). The possessors of robes arc (now) in rags. He who never wove for himself is (now) 

the possess#)' of fine linen (7, 11 —12). He who had no loaf is (now) owner of a barn. His 

magazine is fitted out with the possessions of another (S, 3 — 4). He whose hair had fallen out 
and who was without oil is become a possessor of jars of sweet myrrh (8, 4). She who had no 
box is possessor of a coffer. She who looked at her face in the water is possessor of a mirror 
(8, 5). Those who possessed vessel-stands of bronze — not one jug is adorned for one of (hem (?) 
(7, 14). He who was ignorant of the lyre (now) possesses a harp. He who never sang for 
himself now vaunts the goddess Alert (7, 13— 14). He who slept without a wife (?) through want 
finds precious things (7, 14 — 8, 1). Noble ladies, great ladies , mistresses of goodly things give 
their children (in exchange ) for beds if) (8, 8). The children of princes arc dashed against the 
walls. The offspring of desire are laid out on the high ground, Khnum groans because of his 

weariness (5, 6—7). Noble ladies are upon . Princes are in the storehouse. He who never 

slept upon walls (?) is (now) the possessor of a bed (7, 10). Hair has fallen out for everyone. 
The son of a man of rank is no (longer) distinguished from him who has no such father (?) (4, 1). 
The children of princes arc cast out'j) in (he streets. He who knows says it is so. He who is 
ignorant says no. He who does not know i/ } it is good in his eyes (6, 13 — J4). The wealthy 
arc in mourning. The poor man is full of joy. Every town says : let us suppress (he powerful 
among us (2, 7 — 8). 

It is an age of wickedness and impiety. The hot-headed man If) says: If 1 knew where God 
is, then would 1 make offerings unto him (5, 3). [Right is throughout the land in this its name. 
What men do, in appealing to it, is Wrong (5,3— 4), i\ logical spells are divulged. Sm-ineantations (?) 
and shin-incantations (?) arc frustrated because they are remembered by men (6,6—7). [A man who 
was ignorant of] his god (now) offers to him with the incense of another (8, 7). Butchers transgress (?) 

fiar<Hrirr t The AtliTitiiiJtnjn^ of an K^y^tian Slfj*- 

1 2 

with the cal tic of the poor (8, io). Butchers transgress (?) with geese. They arc given (to, the gods 
instead of oxen (8, 12). He who never slaughtered for himself now slaughters bulls (8, ] 1) 1 . 

A few sentences phrased in more general terms give expression to the prevailing wretchedness 
and misery. That has perished which yesterday was seen (?) The land is left ewer to its weariness { r) 
like the cutting of flax (5, 12—13). Noise is not lacking (r] in years of noise. There is no end 
of noise (4, 2). Mirth has perished, and is [no longer | made. It is groaning that fills the land, 
mingled with lamentations (3, 13 —14). All animals, (heir hearts weep. Cattle moan because of 
the state of the land (5, 5). The virtuous man 'walks in mourning because of what has happened 
in the land { 1,8). Great and small (say : I wish I might die. Little children say. he ought never 
to have caused (me) to live (?) (4, 2—3). In an obscure paragraph it seems to be said that men 
voluntarily throw themselves into the river, in order to be devoured by the crocodiles (2, 12—13). 
The fate of the dead is not much better than that of the living. The owners of tombs are 
driven out on ihe high ground „ He who who could make for himself no coffin is (note) 'possessor of 
a treasury (7, 8). Those who were in the place of embalmment are laid on the high ground 
(4, 4). Many dead men are buried in ihe river. The stream is a sepulchre , and the place of 
embalmment has become stream (2, 6—7). 

The allusions to the king and to the palace in the earlier part of the book are for the 
most part vague and inconclusive. The position of the reigning monarch is nowhere clearly 
defined. There are a few references to the robber)' of royal tombs, and to the violation of 
their secrecy. The serpent-goddess Is taken from her hole. The secrets of ihe kings of Upper 

and Lower Egypt are divulged (7, 5—6). He who was buried as a hawk is . What the 

Pyramid concealed is become empty (7, 2). It is not improbable that tomb-robbery is also implied 
by the sentence Things arc done , that have never happened for long time past; the king has 
been taken away if) by poor men (7, 1 — 2). There seems to be a contradiction between the state¬ 
ments The palace is firm and flourishing (2, i 1} and The Residence is overturned in a minute 
(7, 4). We need not however attach much importance to this inconsistency; what is probably 
meant is that while the palace is endangered, still the king is more happily situated than most 
of his subjects. Sentences have already been quoted (3,9. 12) where the poverty of the king 
is alluded to; and it is mentioned again in 7, 6—7; The Residence is afraid through want , This 
is the key-note of the final sentence that leads up to the admonitions of io, 6 foil.; The North¬ 
land weeps. The storehouse of the king is the common property of everyone, and the entire palace 
is without its revenues. To if belongs [by right) wheat and barley, geese and fish. To it belongs 

white cloth and fine linen, bronze and oil. To it belongs carpet and mat, . palanquin and 

all goodly produce . If it had not been . in the palace, . would 

not be empty (10, 3—6), 

With these words 1 power ends his description of the desolation and anarchy to which 
Egypt has fallen a prey. Taking it as his text, he now turns to his audience and admonishes 
them to rid themselves of these evils by energetic measures and by virtuous conduct. His last 
utterance has contrasted the palace as it is, impoverished and robbed by everyone, with the 
palace as it was in former and better times, rich in wheat and barley, and in all the produce of 
the land. His first command is to rid Egypt of die enemies whose machinations have brought 

) The*e three sentences probably all refer to olferioj^. 



the Residence to such a pass: Destroy the enemies of the noble Residence, splendid in eonriiers .. 

wherein formerly the overseer of the town walked abroad, •without an escort (?) (i o, 6 — 7). Again 
and again ipinver reiterates this charge, each time recalling another trait of the past splendour 
of the Residence. The epithets that he applied to it are now lost in lacunae, with the exception 
of two, from which we learn that its laws were manifold (10, 8), and its offices numerous (10, it). 

But it will not suffice to drive the enemies from the land, the angry gods must be appeased. 
Remember (to bring) fat ro-geese, iorpit and set-geese; and to offer offerings to the gods. Remember 
to chew natron, and to prepaid white bread. (So should ) a man (do 7 ) on the day of moistening 
the head. Remember to end flagstaffs, and to carve stelae; the priest purifying the temples, and 
the god's house being plastered (white) like milk. (Remember) to make fragrant the perfume of 
the horizon , and to renovate the offering-loaves. Remember to observe regulations , and to adjust 
dates. (Renumber) to remove him who enters upon the priestly office in impurity of body if) That 

is to perfonn it wrongfully. That is corruption of heart (?). Remember to slaughter oxen 

. . . , . to offer geese upon the fire .(10, 12—11, 7). 

These injunctions grow less and less intelligible as the lacunae of the eleventh page in¬ 
crease in size. We cannot tell where they ended; perhaps the infinitive rdit in 1 1, 10 is dependent 
upon a last example of the imperative ‘remember’. At last an obscure passage emerges out of 
the fragments of lines. The following translation, full of uncertainties as it is, will give some idea 

of the drift.. lack of people . Re; command (?) . the 

West, to diminish (?). by the \gods?\. Behold ye, wherefore does he [seek ?] to form 

. without (?) distinguishing the timid man from him whose nature is violent. He bringeth (?) 

coolness to that which is hot. It ts said-, he is the herdsman of mankind. A T o evil is in his heart. 
When his herds are few, he passes the day to gather them together , their hearts being on fire (?) 
Would that he had perceived their nature (?) in the first generation (of men)\ then he would have 
suppressed evil, he would have stretched forth his against it, he would have destroyed their ...... 

and their inheritance. Men desired to give birth. Sadness grew up (?); needy (?) people on every 
side. Thus it was(??) and it passes not away (?) as long as (?) the gods in the midst thereof endure. 
Seed shall come forth from (?) the women of the people ; none (?) is found on the way (?). A fighter (?) 
goes forth , that (he?) may destroy the wrongs thaif) they have brought about. There is no pilot (?) 
in their moment. Where is he (?) today? Is he sleeping? Behold, his might is not seen (f 1, 11 —12, 6). 

Dr. Lange saw in this passage the prophecy of a wise and beneficent ruler, whose advent 
should restore Egypt to its old prosperity and power; and he made the observation that both 
the form in which it is put and the choice of words recall those higher flights of Hebrew pro¬ 
phecy that speak of a coming Messiah. The suggestion implicated in this view is momentous 
enough to demand a very careful consideration. Dr. Lange states his case with great caution, 
and freely admits, that if the passage stood alone, it might easily be susceptible of another inter¬ 
pretation. When at last he decides in favour of his ‘Messianic’ hypothesis, he is confessedly 

influenced by his view of the early descriptive passages 1 . These he understands as referring to 

the future and hence as prophetic in character. Our rejection of that view does not however neces¬ 

sarily invalidate Dr. Langes conception of the passage now under discussion: it is very' well possible 

t) Jch hihe tnich wiederhoh gtfiagt, oh doc anderc Auffassuog dieses Abschmtfe mbgHch w£rc. Ee konnten natiirlich auth 
gaui allgemeiuc fStirachtungcn fiber 'den gnten 1 Kocig scin. Aber bei Grwagung tier frozen Situation ist « dach wahrscheinlieh, daw 'fyw* 
ausgehenri von tier SchiJJcmng dttr kommendeu son&lcn und peddiachru ZcnUltting dcs L^udcs, auf die Abhilfc durch eineu von deu Govern 
geschieUca K^nig himveist 11 Of, af. p. 7. 


(iimlhuT, The Admonitions of an K^y[>tUn ian^c. 

that Ipuwer, though hitherto merely a narrator and preacher, should here have given utterance, 
as if by a sudden inspiration, to a prophecy concerning a coming saviour. Certain sentences and 
phrases seem at first sight to favour this supposition: He bringeth (?) coolness to that which is hot. 
It is said: he is the herdsman of mankind. No roil is in his heart. When his herds arc fcu>, he 
passes the day gather them together. So too the references to the suppression of evils , and the 
destruction of wrongs; and the final rhetorical questions in 12,5 — 6. I cannot but think that 
Dr. Lange has overestimated the significance of the metaphor of the herdsman, which was no 
uncommon image among the Egyptians for the good ruler. Still the theory pul forward by him 
has considerable plausibility. The question is, whether the passage cannot be interpreted in a 
wholly different manner, and in one which explains, to some extent at least, the obscure sentences 
in 12, 2—6. Now a good case can, I think, be made out for the hypothesis that it is the sungod 

Re to whom the entire passage refers. It should be remembered that Re was fabled to have 

been die first of the Pharaonic rulers of Egypt, and that he stood at all periods in the most 
intimate relation to its kings, who were called L sons of Re' and were thought to possess and to 
exercise solar prerogatives. The name of Re occurs in the fragments of 11,11, and though 
the lacunae that follow make the sense of the context impossible to divine, yet the allusion to 

the West in 11, 12 suggests that die dealings of that deity with men may there have been the 

dominant thought. The question immediately preceding the description of the perfect ruler 
(11, 13—12, 1} perhaps refers to die god as creator (11, 12—13); wherefore, it is asked, does 
Re shape mankind without distinguishing the meek from those that are violent? The words he 
is the herdsman of mankind, there is no evil in his heart are no less applicable to Re than to 
a predicted human ruler. 1 desire to lay special emphasis on the next sentences (12, 2—3). 
Expression is there given to the wish that the good herdsman had perceived the {evil) natures 
of men in the first generation; then he would have suppressed evil , he would have stretched forth 
his arm against it (?), he would have destroyed their seed if) and their inheritance. It is not easy 
to sec in what sense these words could be applied to an human ruler whose coming is predicted. 
On the other hand the thought is perfectly natural if we take it as referring to Re, the supreme 
ruler of the world. The phrase the first generation is, as the philological note will show, closely 
allied to the term ‘the first time’, the familiar expression used by the Egyptians in connection 

with the age when Re was king upon earth. Nor is there anything strange in the supposition 
that Re could, if he had wished, have destroyed mankind and so rooted out the evil of which 
they are the originators. Dr. Lange did not understand these sentences, and that is the reason 
why his theory' takes no account of them. From this point onwards the text becomes more and 
more obscure: 1 venture however to think that the argument must have been somewhat as 
follows. Re in his leniency' permitted men to live. They desired to give birth; hence arose 
sadness, and needy if) people on every side. Nor shall the eternal propagation of the race, and 
the evils consequent thereupon, ever cease. But a strong ruler — Re himself or his deputy the 
king — might succeed in controlling and mitigating the terrible consequences which men, left to 
themselves, are bound to reap as the fruits of their wickedness; lie might destroy (he wrongs 
that (?) they have brought about. But now, in this age of wickedness and misery, no such ruler 
is at hand; There is no pilot (?) in their moment. Where is he (?) today ? Is he sleeping} Behold , 
his power is not seen (12, 3—6). 

I do not wish to conceal or minimize the fact that this manner of interpreting the passage, 



so far at least as the latter parts of it are concerned, is sheer guesswork, at the very best a 
rough approximation to the sense intended by the writer. It lias however the advantage of 
providing a suitable transition to the denunciation of the king that is soon to follow. I propose 
it merely as an alternative, and, as I think, a superior alternative, to i)r. Lange’s view. At all 
events it seems now to be clear that whichever hypothesis scholars may choose, there is too 
much uncertainty about the matter for it to be made the basis of any far-reaching conclusions as 
to the influence of 1 Egyptian upon Hebrew literature, 

After a few more broken sentences, the drift of which is utterly obscure and where it is 
best to refrain from any sort of conjectures as to the possible meaning, we arrive (in 12, 1 1) at a 
rather more intelligible passage where a single person is addressed. This is the king, as we soon 
perceive from the epithets and predicates that are applied to him. Hitherto the discourse of 
Ipuwcr has run on quite general lines, and personal recriminations are wholly wanting. Even 
when the sage speaks of Re, the type and pattern of all kings, and laments the absence of his 
guiding hand in the present conjuncture, there is still no dear reference to the reigning monarch. 
The long-deferred reproaches that Ipuwer now levels at the head of the king have something of the 
force of Nathan’s words, when at last he turns on David with the retort { Thou art the man!' 
The charge seems to be one of laxity and indifference rather than of any definitely criminal intention, 
and the accusations are intermingled with detached and brief descriptions of the deeds of violence 
and the bloodshed that are witnessed daily throughout the land. Taste, Knowledge and Tmtk, 
those three noble attributes of royalty, arc with thee, and yet confusion is what thou dost pvt 
throughout the land, together with the noise of tumult. Behold, one uses violence against another . 
People transgress what thou hast commanded. If three men journey upon a road, they are found 
to be two men; the greater number slays the less (12, 12 —14). The speaker next imagines himself 
to be debating the point with the king, who is perhaps thought to exculpate himself by casting 
the blame on the evil dispositions of his subjects, Is there a herdsman that loves death} Then 
wouldst thou command to make reply, it is because one man loves and another hates (?) that their 
forms(}) are few on every side. It is because thou hast acted so (?) as to bring about these things (?) 
Thou hast sfolecn falsehood. The land is as a weed that destroys men (12, 14—13,2). These 
arc obscure words, but their tenor is, I think, unmistakeable. Then follows a last emphatic 
reiteration of the well-worn theme of bloodshed and anarchy; two sentences are actually repeated 
from the earlier part of the book, that which precedes the admonitions. All these years are (?) 

discordant strife. A man is killed upon Jus housetop. He is vigilant in his boundarydiouse. Is 

he brave} { Then) he saves himself and he lives If) People send a servant (?) to poor men. He 
walks upon the road until he sees the flood (?) The road is dragged {pith the drag-net}}). He 

stands there in misery (?) IVhat he has upon him is taken away. He is belaboured if) with blows 

of the stick, and wrongfully slain (13, 2 — 5). Yet once again Ipuwer turns to the king: Would 

that thou /nightest taste some of these miseries , then wouldst thou say . Here we lose 

sight, for a few lines, of the meaning of the context. 

1 here follows a description of a peaceful and joyous condition of things, doubtless calcu¬ 
lated to instil into the hearers of Ipuwer a sense of the great losses that their folly and impiety 

have inflicted upon them. It is however good, when ships (?) sail upstream (?). It is 

/lowti'cr good , when the net is drawn in, and birds arc made fast . It is however good, 

when . and the roads are passable. It is however good, when the hands of men 

G aril [ tie i\ The AdmuuiLions of in Ejjyptian 

1 6 

build pyramids. Ponds arc dug, and plantations arc made of the trees of the gods. It is however 

good , when people are. drunken. They drink . and their hearts are glad. It is however good, 

when rejoicing is in men's mouths. The magnates of districts stand and look on at (he rejoicing 

in their houses ... It is however good\ when 6eds are made ready (?) The headrests 

of princes are stored in safety if) The needff) of every man is satisfied with a eon eh in the shade. 
The door is shut upon him, who (?) {formerly}) slept in the bushes. It is however good , when 
fine linen is spread out on the day of the Newyearif) (13, 9 —14, 4). A few more 

sentences of the same kind, now lost, brought this section to a close. 

Here the discourse of Ipuwer may well have ended. After the idealistic picture of a 
happier age, in which a gleam of hope for the future may be discerned, any return to the pessi¬ 
mistic tone of the foregoing pages seems impossible. As was pointed out above 1 , place must be 
found before 5, i 3 for a speech of the king. Of the two possible alternatives, by far the more 
probable is that the beginning of this speech fell in the destroyed portions of page 1*4. It is 
very unfortunate that the passage following the lacunae of the fourteenth page should be among 
the most obscure in the entire work; all my efforts to make connected sense of it have utterly 
failed. It is at least clear that warfare and the recruiting of troops are among the topics; and 

various foreign tribes are named. The only sentence that we can utilize in this summary of the 

contents of the book is one where it is stated that the Asiatics (^^'j ; had made them¬ 
selves acquainted with the internal condition of Egypt (15, 1): this confirms the allusions made 
in earlier passages to a foreign people that had invaded the land and had found a firm footing 
in its northernmost parts. If we may hazard a guess as to the probable drift of the whole 
section 14, 7—15,13, it may be surmised that the king here answers Ipuwer with general 
reflexions concerning the political outlook of those times. 

In 15, 13 a rubric introduces a new speech of Ipuwer; What Ipuwer said , when he answered 
the Majesty of the Sovereign. The next words are cryptic:.. all animals. To be igno¬ 

rant of it is what is pleasant in {their) hearts . Thou hast done what is good in their hear is. Thou 

hast nourished them with itif) They cover if) their if) . through fear of the morrow (15,13 — 16,1). 

I shall endeavour to prove, in the Commentary, that these were the final words of the book. The 
theory is no doubt a bold one; but its rejection is attended by a good many more difficulties 
than its acceptance. At all events I crave permission to assume its correctness here. It remains 
for us to inquire what Ipuwer can have meant by his brief concluding comment on the speech of 
the king. The situation presupposed in the book practically excludes the happy ending. No mere 
words can remedy the ills that Ipuwer has described at such length. Whatever the king may 
have said by way of reply is for this reason wholly indifferent, and it is difficult to believe that 
Ipuwer is speaking seriously when he says: Thou hast done what is good in their hearts. It 
seems more probable that he here wishes to imply that the king has wilfully fostered his subjects 
in their ignorance and callousness, which he likens to that of brute beasts. Upon this parting 
sarcasm the Pharaoh is left to ponder: the sage has earlier indicated the courses of action by 
which Egypt may retrieve its lost prestige, and his last words are perhaps little more than a 
literary artifice enabling him to make a graceful exit. 

1) P. 6, bottom. 


] 7 

5. Conclusions. 

Having analysed in detail the contents of Pap . Leiden J44 recto, it remains for us only to 
slate, in a more general way, our conclusions as to its place in Egyptian literature, as to the date 
of its composition, and as to the historical situation to which it may allude. The text belongs to 
the same category as the Eloquent Peasant, the Maxims of Ptahhotp and the Lebensm)ide\ in all 
these books die real interest centres in the long discourses that they contain, and the introductory 
tale is merely the framework or setting. The form is thus not very dissimilar to that of the 
Platonic dialogues; and though it may seem rather bold to compare these Egyptian compositions, 

for the most part so sterile in imagination and lacking in genuine poetic beauty, with some of 

the grandest products of the Greek literary genius, still the analogy is sufficiently close to be worth 
insisting upon. There can be little doubt that the Lehmmude, for example, satisfied the same 
kind of intellectual cravings among the Egyptians as did the Phaedo among the Greeks 1 * . The 
purely literary intention of these Egyptian hooks has, 1 think, been somewhat over-emphasized. 
Even the Eloquent Peasant , which is richer in metaphors and similes than in its thought, is after 
all something more than a mere series of eloquent speeches — eloquent in the Egyptian sense of 
the word. It has a definite abstract subject, the rights of the poor mar, or, more briefly, Justice. 
Similarly the Maxims of Ptahhotp have as their theme the conduct that befits the well-born man, 
and more particularly the judge. The Lebensmitde gives an answer to the question ‘Is life worth 
living?’ However deficient in philosophical value these treatises are, when looked at from our 

modern standpoint, they are rone the less that which in the earlier stages of Egyptian history 

took the place of Philosophy 3 . 

Regarded from this point of view, what is the specific problem of which our text may be 
said to treat? I think the answer must be, of the conditions of social and political well-being 3 . 
If we may venture to extract the essence of Ipuwer's discourse, wc shall find that the things 
which he thought to conduce to the happily-constituted state are three: a patriotic attitude in 
resisting foes from within and from without; piety towards the gods; and the guiding hand of a 
wise and energetic ruler. This formulation of the contents seems to be unsatisfactory only in so 
far as it ignores the great prominence and extension given to the exposition of the downfall of 
the land. The writer was perhaps unable to restrain himself in the presence of thfr opportunity 
here offered to his descriptive powers. However that may be, it can scarcely be dented that the 
admonitions which begin on the tenth page form the kernel of the whole. Hence the title that 
I have chosen for this edition of the text. Before leaving the subject of its contents, I must once 
more affirm that there is no certain or even likely trace of prophecies in any part of the book. 

With regard to the date at which the work was composed, this question is inextricably 
bound up with the problem as to the historical situation that the author had in his mind. The 
existence of some historical background few will venture to dispute; unless some support in facts 
had been forthcoming for his thesis, the Egyptian writer would have imagined an Egypt given 
over to anarchy and foreign invaders not much more easily than an English novelist could 

t) The subject of tlic Lebenimudt is mure alciu to that of the Apology: the form of Ihe latter however is not that which is usual 
in the other Platonic dialogues, 

3) This generalization must be qualified by a reference to the curious mythological toil about Fuh t which Breasted has pnblished 
uoder the title The philosophy of d Memphite priest (A. Z , 39 39—54). The rationalization of their religious conceptions was another 

means by which the Egyptians evolved a variety of philosophical speculation. 

3) In other words, it is a sort of Egyptian 'Republic', — tn continue the comparison with the dialogue? of Plato. 

Gardiner. - 

tr^rdiner, The Admonitions of j.11 SkjLjc, lMn>t!ucliutK 

t H 

imagine an l^ni^lnncl subject lo the Turks. The texL tells both of civil war and of an Asiatic 
occupation of die Delta. There art' two periods which might possibly answer the requirements 
of die rase: the one is the dark age that separates the sixth from the eleventh dynasty; the 
other is the I lyksos period. Sethe inclines to the view that it is the invasion of the Hyksos to 
which our papyrus alludes. Much may be said in favour of this alternative. Though the tombs 
of Siut give us a glimpse of the internal disruption of Hgypt during the ninth and tenth dynasties, 
the monuments are silent upon the subject of Asiatic aggression at that date. Hence if the text 
be thought to refer to the earlier period, an historical fact of great importance must be postu¬ 
lated. There is no such difficulty in the view preferred by Sethe. A small point that might be 
thought’ to lend support to this hypothesis is the use of the word t*tff ‘pestilence’ or ‘plague’ in 
2. 5 ; this is the identical word that is employed of the Hyksos in the first Sallier papyrus. On 
the other hand certain considerations may be urged in favour of the earlier date. The text 
belongs to a group of compositions that we are accustomed, as we thought on good grounds, 
to associate with the Middle Kingdom. In particular there are curious points of contact both with 
the Lebensmudc and the Instructions of Amenctnmes /. Though, as we have seen 1 , no definite 
deductions as to date can he based on these connections, still it is difficult not to feci that they 
point towards a pre-Hyksos period. It is true that we have no means of telling in what style of 
language literary texts of the early eighteenth dynast}’ were written; and it is of course possible 
that our text may have been composed while the Hyksos were still in the land. But on the 
whole the language of the papyrus (and, we may add, the palaeography) makes us wish to push 
back the date of the composition as far as possible. Certain administrative details may perhaps 
be brought forward as indicative of the earlier period of the two between which our choice lies. 
In 6, 12 the six ’Great Houses’ are named: we know these to have been the law-courts that 
were in existence throughout the Old Kingdom, and it is not improbable that they became obsolete 
in or soon after the Middle Kingdom. Again in io, 7 llie ‘Overseer of the d own' is mentioned 
as exercising office in the royal city of Residence; before the eighteenth dynasty this title had 
degenerated into a merely decorative epithet of the Vizier. It will be seen that the grounds for 
a decision are not very convincing on either side. The view that our Leiden papyrus contains 
allusions to the Hyksos lias the better support from the historical standpoint, but philological 
and other considerations seem rather to point to the seventh to tenth dynasties as those which 
have provided the background of events. It is doubtless wisest to leave this question open for 
the present. 

I) Sec above 3. 


Preliminary note. The text given below is in the main identical with that of the plates 
at the end of the volume, but is here divided into sections, within which the separate sentences 
arc demarcated in such a way as to exhibit their grammatical structure. Signs enclosed in 
square brackets [ ] are restorations of lacunae in the papyrus. Emendations or dots within 
angular brackets ( ) indicate words omitted by the scribe. The orthography of the original has 
been retained as a rule, even where it is obviously incorrect, but here and there a slight alteration 
lias been made. All departures from the transcription given in the plates are shown by dots 
beneath the line, except when they are already marked by the presence of brackets. 

(*. 0 1 

1 , 1 - 1 , 6 . 


LLIIl]j 11 

II I t 

fVlt, i 





- t> 3)|.im£«feri2oi« 

JS <•••*) [ft] I.lfllW«i<&SiL.L , l*=& 

^(^(,, 5)8 . 


t&l™ wvj a LJar& 



nr for various form*; of ihe hieroglyph here In 
be read see Bershth t r^, S; Rifth 17; l/rktwtfdn IV 75S; and in hicmtii; An&j£. I 2 2 t 6; Mil tin get! 2,7, 

A, Mv rvv with 1 superfluous ti t a£ in utnmt-n 3,3. 

1 I I 

.. The door [-beepers] say. Let us go and plunder. The confectio- 

uers .. The washerman refuses (?) to carry his load. . 

. The bird [ catchers] have drawn up in line of battle, . .....[ The inhabitants'] of 

the Marshes carry shields. The brewers ... sad. A man looks 

upon his son as his enemy ;. 

Men abandon their trades and professions to become soldiers; the evils of civil war are 
everywhere felt. 



Gardiner, The Admonition?- of an Egyptian bi£t. 

1.1. ^ ‘sav’ with ellipse of dd, see Firman, Acg. Gramm} £380: so often below e. g. 
2, 3. 7; 6, 4. 13 etc. 

1.2. Rhtiw must be construed as a singular; if the suffix of itpwf be correct. — Fit might 

mean ‘weighing’ or ‘advantage’, but in juxtaposition with itpw ‘load’ {for which we might expect 
itpyt CTiit-iJ must have its literal meaning ‘carrying’ (infinitive). — For dd both Lange and Sethc 
compare the usage Scthe, Verbum 11 £ 130b, where dd, followed by the tense sdruf means ‘to think’ 
'to plan 1 (Genii., gedenken). This suggestion is certainly not far from the truth, though here dd 
takes the infinitive, and has a slightly different sense: — 'to refuse’. — For the deter¬ 

minative of itp~v, cf. Sethc, Verbum 1 208 and below 5, 12; similarly hnnw 6,1; 12, 13; hryt to, 1.2. 

J, 3. Ts skw, aciem instruere, cf. Si/mhe I) 54; Amosis 37; Urkundcn IV 758; Sail. Ill 9. 1 ; 
R. /. H. 246, 73; Millingcn 2, 7. It is probable that in this expression sku> means ‘squadrons’ 
‘companies’ cf. Bersheh I 14; R. /. II. 235, 18; Urkunden IV 653; and that it is to be distinguished 

front sky (or skin) ‘battle’, for which sec Mar. flam, 52, 12; Greene, FouUks M 23; R. I. //. 1 17. 

Otherwise the suffix sn in Amosis 37 has nothing to refer to (a v.fub avriatr construction being 
however not quite impossible). As Scthe points out, in Piankhi S .tjA P^ CkA 

we must translate ‘Go forth in ordered line of battle (sk ts)\ and must not separate ts from sk, 
as is clone by Griffith in his note on Alilhngen 2, 7. 

t, 5. Sum, see on 2, 5. — For the next sentence cf. 9, 8—9. — In the following line 
Sethc suggests [1 fp ^ f ^ ^ ^ *—] '*uid the son is ungrateful to his father’: for 

s/ii in this sense see.-Sin/ 5, 23 and the note below on 2, 1 1. 

1 , 6 - 1 , 9 . 


3 % 


fi 7) 

1 D CSV A □ <3 X all ’ 1] 



1 1 1 



[I I I. 



[•“IIUI.1 [H^k^-HTII 

<l e, 5Pk 0 .9) [All. 

' i rca 

a. Ms. 


U 3 

b. This is. an. emendation, since the traces do not suit. 

c. Ms. apparently 

. to(?) another. Come .... . 

. predestined for yo?t in the time of Homs , in the age of [the Enncad\ . 

. The virtuous man walks in tuour/iingQ) on account of that which 

has happened in the land. The . walks . The tribes of the 

desert}) have become Egyptians (?) everywhere. 

1, 7. The present disasters were decreed by fate in the long bygone age. when the gods 
reigned upon earth. For a similar thought cf. below 1, 10. — For m rk Hr , cf. dr rk Hr . 
Butler verso 7. — The conjecture m hiw \psdt\ is due to Sethe. who compares dr hiw psdt, 
R. /. H. 177, 2. 

Text, TraDtliLlon anU Commentary, 

i, S. N 6 hi ‘rite man of character’ ‘the virtuous man’; so already Hat cVnb graffiti 1,3; 

again in 4, 13 and perhaps Ana si. IV 11,6; Brit. Mas . 574, 17 = Sharpe, 

1 2 , 9 - — I) 

Jig. /user. 1 79. [j 

I 11 

hi n 


“1 J' 

o <= 

in 3, I 1 is obviously a different word. — AT kprt m ft, cf. hprl 
JJt ti occurs several times below, cf. 2, 6; 3, i. 3. 14; 5, 3. 10. Compare too 
2, 4; 5, 5. These phrases show that it is no merely local disturbance that is 

■1 1 t 1 ir 

here described, but a great and overwhelming national disaster. 

i, 9. The admirable conjecture j is due to Sethe; for the confusion of [wi and 

1—1—1 cf. on 3,1. Egypt has fallen a prey to foreign invaders (cf. 3, t), who have taken so firm 
a root in the land that they may be said to have become Egyptians, True Egyptians are 
nowhere to be found (cf. 3,2); they, conversely, have become foreigners (cf. 15, t). — Rmt ‘Egyp¬ 
tians' — real ‘men’ in distinction to barbarians — cf. the well-known scene from the tomb of Sethos I, 
Champ. A Ion. 23S — Rosellini, A/on. star. 155; and below 3, 2; 4, i(r) *— M si nbt\ a favourite 
phrase in our papyrus; cf. 2,2.6.14; 3» 2 i 4i/• 

(’>'°) DM. 

'A' 1 . 

Two or three lines entirely lost. 

Forsooth, the face is pale f) ....*. which f) 

the ancestors had foretold .*. 

i, 9. Here for the first time 1 we meet with the formula ho ms, which introduces each 
new topic in the dreary description of Egypt’s downfall until 7, 1, when its place is taken by 
w/.w or ^ [] [I. It is all the more necessary to enter into a detailed discussion of this 

phrase, since it might be thought to exert a modal or temporal influence over the statements 

that follow it, such as would cast them into the dim futurity of prophecy, represent them as 
contingent or as yet unfulfilled, or even wholly negative their meaning. In the Introduction (§ 4) 
the internal evidence of the papyrus was examined at length, and the conclusion was reached 
that the sections i, i—6, 14 and 7, 1—10, 6 together contain a long exposition of social and 

political disorders put into the mouth of a speaker who treats them as existent and undeniable, 

who views himself and his audience as the victims of this condition of things, and who uses it 
as the text for his admonishments and moralizings, It was pointed out that there is little or no 
progress of thought or change of attitude observable when we pass from die first section to 

the second; in the latter however is substituted for ho ms, so that the conclusion is 

forced upon us that hv ms cannot possess a meaning much more significant than mttn ‘behold . 
Still the very rarity of the particle ms precludes the supposition that it is wholly lacking in colour 
and intention, and thus the question arises as to the precise nuance of tone or emphasis that it 
should be understood to imply. The clearest instances outside our papyrus are Wcsicar 2, 5; 

l) It is probably mere accident that no example of tvi ten U found in the rctnaiumg portions of the previous lute*. To judge 

from their sense* it is impossible to separate 1, I—9 from what follows. 

Gardiner, The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage. 

11,22; and 12,22. In the first of these passages the situation is as follows. The wife of the 
master ot ceremonies Webaoner has a guilty ]>assion for a certain man of low birth, whom she 
induces to come and visit hen After a certain lapse of time — now there was a pavilion in 
the garden ot Webaoner — this poor man said to the wife of Webaoner: (j 55 £ 

‘There is a pavilion in the garden of Webaoner, let us take our pleasure in it 1 . Here the 
sense of the particle ms is very clearly rendered in Professor Erman's translation: hn dem Garten 
des Webaoner ist doch ein Landhnus’; the word ms — in German 'doch' — represents the 
existence of the pavilion in the garden as a matter of common knowledge, and implies the 
shadow of a reproach to Wcbaoner's wife that she had not thought of it and of its possible 
convenience thitherto. In the second passage 11,22 a question is put by a mistress to her 

maidservant: ra 0?,?I ? ^ ‘ wes,ialb hat man denn nicht Gefiille gebrachtr’ 

(Krman’s translation). Here ms, in German ‘denn’ — a suitable Hnglish equivalent would be 
'pray' — betrays tlie questioner's irritation that so obvious a duty lias been overlooked. In 12,22 

Red-dedct replies to the query as to why she is sad with the words: 

"Behold, the maidservant went away saying, ‘1 will go and betray (thy secret) ”. 
l£rman renders well: „Sielie sie ist ja fortgegangen mit den Wortcn 11 . The answer is not without 
a tinge of surprise that such a question should be asked, the suppressed thought is, would not 
another be sad in such a case? Here ms conveys just the same nuance as the German ,ja“. 
In the Lebensmude diree declarations about the condition of tiie dead are prefaced by the words 
3 m (ft (lines 14.2. 143. 145). These statements are contradictions of arguments previously 
urged by the man's soul, and the word ms was intended, no doubt T to imply a certain passionate 
emphasis, which the English language can perhaps best reproduce bv the word 'forsooth’. The 
remaining passage where ms occurs outside our papyrus, viz. in Pap. Kafutn 36, 22. is 

too obscure to merit discussion 1 . From the evidence here adduced it seems dear that the par¬ 
ticle ms has the function ot abruptly summoning to the mind of some person addressed a thought 
that had been overlooked, or had been viewed with indifference. It thus corresponds closely to 
the German „doch lt or ,ja l h in interrogative sentences n denn“, English, less rich in such particles, 
can seldom fitly translate the word, Torsooth’, which we have adopted in our renderings, is but 
a poor approximation to its sense. Like „doch tfc and ms may be used for many purposes, 

to remind, to correct, to reprove, to persuade, or, at its weakest, merely to emphasize. It 
belongs essentially to dialogue, and suggests a contrast or opposition between the standpoints 
of the persons participating in it. This is well brought out in a common substantival use of 
the phrase of which a single example will suffice; after recounting liis virtues at length, 

a certain Lntef adds: 'This is my character to which I have borne testimony, —v 


there is no boasting therein, these are my qualities in very truth, — J 1—— 

iVav. \ 

there is nothing to which exception might be taken therein' (L 'rknudea IV 9731 Here iw ws 
obviously means that what precedes is open to no ‘huts', there is nothing that a critic could 
object to in it a . — Having thus ascertained the general sense of ms . it remains for us to 


i) Within out papyrus, ms occurs, besides in hu in 

v | 

J, S; 3, z, 6; and further in 6, 10 and 10, 7. 

■ Im 

2' to this expression j~i? wh doiibllo^ ori^ipally, as in our papyrus, the familiar auxiliary verb which introduces a nominal sentence 

Text, Translation and Commentary. 


* J 

quire into the particular nuance of feeling that it possesses in our papyrus. As wc have seen 
in the Introduction, the dramatic position is highly problematical. Yet there can be little doubt 
that, as in the Lebcnsmttde , with which our text shows so many points of contact, the speaker's 
audience are called upon to open their eyes to facts in respect of which they have hitherto shown 
themselves apathetic, and to learn the lessons inculcated thereby. Thus the function of ms is 
here to admonish. 

T C ^' 2 ’ 2 ' ^ et ^ ie we ^ Ebers 42,9 (je*] >0=-._'his 

face is pale(?}’. For the use of hr, see Vogelsang’s notes on Eloquent Peasant B r, 6 o. 188. Tlie 
foreign word 'dt in Pap. jud. Turin 4> 5 ' s no ^ he confused with id here. 

■<■* C1 '-W?i wvw ® ® “ ° ^j <=> quoted by Golenischeflf A. Z. 14(1876), ioS from 
Pap. Petersburg 1. — For the sense see above 1,7 note. 

Mm . 

1 , 14 (?)— 2 , 1 . 

... (2, 0 «p 



Ms, has a meaningless ligiiu^ which however mry easily be emended to m . 

\Forsooth\ .. the land full of confederates .. A man goes out to plough 

with his shield. 

2,1. Hr smity, cf. 7, 7. — Sethe suggests: ‘[The wrongdoers] upon earth have confederates’: 
but we should then require ^ instead of g>. Perhaps some such phrase as [ |-q ' wwv> ] ® 

(see A. Z. 34 11S96J, 30) should be emended. 

If the conjecture m be correct, the sense may be; even those engaged in the peaceful 
occupation of ploughing have to carry shields; we should however expect hr for m , cf. 1,4. 
Sethe prefers to suppose that the man used his shield [m instrumental!)') instead of a plough. 
A third possibility is to regard the phrase 'to plough with his shield' as a metaphorical expression 
for ‘to fight’ — ‘a man goes forth to fight instead of to plough'. 

2 ,1-2, 

2 . 

Forsooth, the meek sag .. 

face is like him who .......... 

2, 2. Nt} Ton, see the note on 3, 14. 

[ The man who is . . .«/] 

a i&ULf Tk'^kilnir :1a HTT 

—■ the nominal sentence being suppressed. As the later spelling 

gotten. — The suggestion that this fa ws is preserved in the coplic verb 
)toe;«r (A. Z. 42 [1905], $6). 

{A. Z. 44 {1907), 46) shows, its origin was subsequently for- 

WMC (A.Z, 41 [1904], I4S) has been successfully controverted by 


Gardiner, The Admonitions of a» Ki/y^tian Sa^e. 

Forsooth , the face is patent) The bowman is ready. The wrongdoer is everywhere. There 
is no man of yesterday. 

2, 2. [Hr] 'Sdu\ see i, 9 note. — PdtyQ) ‘bowman’ (note the masculine pseudoparticiple 
grg) is not found as a singular elsewhere; perhaps we should emend the usual phrase 

for ‘bowman’ in the Middle Kingdom. 

Nn s't n sf. Probably we should understand, with Sethe: the times are changed, there 
arc no men of yesterday, — only novi homines, upstarts, men of today. 

2 , 2 - 2 , 3 . 

lnT<*- 3>2 



Forsooth , the plunder erf) . everywhere. The servant 

. to find it. 

2, 2. Hihiv again below 2,9, 8, 10. 11; see the note on 2,9. 

2, 3. This clause is certainly corrupt. 

2 , 3 . 









W) e 

] G .vwwjf^Ciiii O Til d 

Forsooth , Nile overflows , (yet) no one ploughs for him. Every man says : we know not 
what has happened throughout the land. 

2, 3. Nf 'for him' i. e. for the Nile personified as a god. 


Forsooth^ women are lacking\ and no (children) arc concaved. Khnum fashions {tnankintf) 
no longer because of (he condition of the land. 

2, 4, WSr l be wanting 1 ‘lacking 1 . So Sctlie correctly; not 'barren', as I, following Lange, 
had rendered, Lange quotes Piehl, Imcr 1 38,9—39, ] fj) ^^ *c? ° s “ 3 

*=rOl — Khnum is here the potter who fashions men on his wheel; cf. below 5, 6, 


C 30 

r I 1 1 

2 , 4 - 2 , 5 . 


(2, 5) 0 

Forsooth , poor men are become owners of good things. He who could make for himself 
no sandals is {now) the possessor of riches. 

2, 4, $wf, opposed to }psw below 2, 7, to hwdw below 8, 2; from these and other 
passages {Millingcn 1,6; Sinuhc 309; Mar. Karnak 37b, 7; Harris 75,4 [contrasted with 670 i to]) 
it appears to mean ‘poor’ ‘in humble circumstances’. As verb, ‘to be poor' on a M. K. sarcophagus, 

Text* Translation and Commentary, 


Rec. tie Trav, 26,67; ^ ie causative below 7, 2; 9,6. - Nb spss, cf. S, 8; Rif eh 4, 59; as Sethe 
points out, ips's ‘good things' (especially eatables) (cf. 3,3; 8, 1.8.) has here as elsewhere (c. g. 
iVestcar 7,21; Vrknnden IV 52, 334, 335, 515} always the geminated form, which thus serves to 

distinguish it from ‘noble men 1 (2, 7), and from 

a ^ ‘noblewomen' (3,4; 4, 12; 

S, S. 9. 13; 9, 1). 


The infinitive is doubtless due to tho New Egyptian scribe* who 

for this form of the verb however usually writes or <“> (Sethe, Verbum II § 683); perhaps 

we should read r for i here, though the sign is made small (cf. r ky i,6; tr?o 6,5; dsr 6, 5). 
The correct old form after im occurs below, 7,S; ! 2, 1 1 ; so too S, 1 ; fl 9 * 4 * 

2, 5, A T b ‘f/Wt lit. 'possessor of heaps 1 , cf. 2, 9; 7, 1 2; 8, 1; Sint i, 247; Lcbensvmde 33; 
Rif eh 7, 50. So in Coptic * treasure*. 

2 , 5 . 

HPAii,^T?ip.T3k^i -m«A^DHpr:.iipk>fi! 

Forsoolii , nieu s slaves^ their hearts are sad. Princes do not fraternise with their pcopleip\ 
when they rejoieeif] 

2, 5. in place of a suffix, as often elsewhere, occurs below e. g. 2, 12; 3, S; 12,3; 

here doubtless vaguely, ‘men’s slaves’. — Sam is probably identical with the verb ‘to be sad’, 
hitherto known only from texts in Dendera (cf. A. 7 .. 43 [1906], 113) and from Canopus 26. 29, 
where ity daobvan' tov Tiirttovg is rendered by 'UX . This sense suits well here, and 

fairly well in 3,4; in 1,5 the context is lost. Snm in 12,6 is possibly a different word. — The 
conjecture nhm is accepted by Sethe, who translates as above. 

2 , 5 - 6 . 

( 5 , 6 ) 

O 7 i |E 




Forsooth , {vie}! If) hearts are violent. Plague is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere. 
Death is not lacktngif). The mummydothtf) speaks , before ever one eontes near >/(.') 

2, 5. j \i)d( is apparently a term of opprobrium for nil malign influences. It is used of 
the Hyksos Sail. I, 1,1; cf. Pap. Leiden 350 recto 1, 13. It is especially frequent in magical texts 
n the phrase (j ^ j f ^ Sail. IV S, 9; 15, 1; Pap. Leiden 346, 2,4. 7, where it cannot be 

altogether dissociated from the masculine word in Middle Kingdom texts; cf. mi Shut 

rnpi idzv. Sinuke 45; similarly ("spelt ^ cC ' Trav, 15, 179; rupt n idztt L. D. II 150a, 6; 

nbt tdv.\ Eloquent Peasant B 1,120. 

2, 6. The verb it kin (or kin ?) is probably corrupt; a similar word occurs in 4, 2. In 

.‘■JW'AA j-. _ . 

both places the emendation pg vx'Sjj* would be suitable, — The translation of the last two 

sentences is due to Sethe. The sense seems to be: corpses are everywhere, and the very ban¬ 
dages cry out, so that they can be heard without drawing near to them. 




Onrdiner^ The Admonitions of an E|*y|>Liin 

2 , 6 — 7 . 

Forsooth , many dead men are buried in the river . The stream is a sepulchre , and the 

place of embalmment has become stream. 

2, 7. For hit cf. below 7, 8 and see Ennan’s note on Lebensm'udc 52, where the sug¬ 
gested rendering ‘bier’ may possibly be correct. Elsewhere however the word has the wider 
meaning ‘tomb’, even in prose, c i. Pap. Kahnn 12,12; lit Amrah 29,6. See too die mastaba- 
like determinative in the Pyramidtexts (P 607). 

W*bt has several meanings; (1) doubtful in the old title ( 2 ) ‘kitchen’ ‘refectory’ 

or the like in dOrbiney ’5,7; L. D. Ill 2370,8; (3} 'place of embalmment’, especially frequent on 
the Scrapenm stelae, cf. Rec. de Trav. 21,72; 22,20.167; 23, 77; (4) in a wider sense ‘tomb’ 
Hanover stele (M. R.) = Rec, de Trav. 17,4; Vienna stele 148 (late). Here one might hesitate 
between (3) and (4); in 7,8 ‘tomb’ is certainly the preferable meaning; in 4, 4 = 6, 14 the con¬ 
text refers to embalmment, so that the third sense is there the most likely. 

2 , 7 - 2 , 8 . 

@ Me 

o a &\ 

^ O' 

ft W 

@ rs. 0 

Q^! I Ol ^ 1 

( 2 - *0 

I 1 @ I \ I 

Forsooth^ ike wealthy are in mourning. The pooi* man is full of j<$\ Every town says: 
let us suppress ike powerful among us. 

2 y 7. For nhwt cf. below 5,3; see Ermarfs note on Lebensntitde 14S; Spiegelherg in 
A. Z. 43 (igo6) 133. — see above on 2, 4 — lfr t sec the note on i, k — Kmi\ cf. 9* 3. 

2 , 8 . 

Tn "J e ,9,T^7t ©lihlNi 


Ms. . b Ms. inserts aww between p3 and rXv 

11 1 

Forsooth , men are like gm-birds. Squalors*) is throughout the land. There ts none whose 
elollies arc white in these times. 

2 % 8. The interpretation suggested for this passage is in the main due to Scthe. The 
^■fu-bird, of which the female ' s depicted on the reliefs from Abu Gurab now in the 

Berlin Museum, closely resembles the ibis: the allusion may be either to its sombre colouring, or 
to its habit of wallowing in the mud. 

jj @ O cf the word ~rr jj ^ ' dirt [:)' Sinuhr 291, 



I I I 

Text, Transition And Commentary. 


Ebers 89, 16. i8; and possibly in P ^{ S£t ^ ^ ‘the land’), Urkunden IV 247, 
if sbt is there to be read. — Hd kbsw , as epithet, occurs Sinuke 153; Petrie, Dcndcrch 15,4; 
Leiden V 6 , 


2 , 8 — 2 , 9 . 


I I H 


Forsooth , the land turns round as does a potter’s wheel. The robber is a possessor of 
riches. {The rick man?) is [become?] a plunderer. 

2, S. Msnh ‘to turn round’ *bc reversed’, first in Zauberspr. f. Mutter u. Kind 2, 1; in 

the New Kingdom spelt either so (e. g. Pap. Leiden 350, recto 2,6), or without n (Br. 

Worierb. 704), often with the meaning ‘to turn away' dazzled by the light of the sun. — Nhp 
‘potter’s wheel’, Br. Worierb. 795. 

2, 9. N 6 * h'zu, see the note on 2,5. — Hikw again above 2,2; the plural hiky below 8, 10.11. 
If the form be participial, it can only be that of the imperfect active participle, as the plural hiky 
shows (cf. Sethe, Vcrbum 11 § S70). In this case the sense must be: he who was once a robber 
is now rich, and he who was formerly rich is now a robber. However both Lange and Sethe 
prefer a passive meaning for hikw 'a man who is plundered’ or ‘captured as plunder'. — The 
lacuna before ?u hikw is not nearly big enough to have contained the substantive which the anti¬ 
thesis demands; and it should probably be assumed that ub 'liw , or some synonymous expression, 
has been omitted by the scribe. 

Forsooth , trusty servantsif) are [ like '].. The poor man [complains} J: 

how terrible it isQ)\ what am I to do ? 

2, 9. Kfi-ib , a good quality of uncertain meaning, cf. Prtsse 8,6. 13,8; frequently as 
epithet of the , e. g. Bersheh 1 20. 29: Rekhmere 3, 33. — For hr-wy the above rendering 

is proposed by Sethe. 

(2. to) l|e(f|P^I|, 

Q JWVW* , t 

(j) jWvW* 







0 /WWW 

Forsooth , the river is bloody and (j yet) men drink of it. Men shrink from (?) {tasting}) 
human beings, and thirst after water. 

2, 10. Ni as transitive verb in Eloquent Peasant B 2, 106 


Gardiner, The Admonitions of aa Egyptian Sa^e. 

(cf. also ibid. B i, i e o) where Vogelsang suggests: ‘StoBe niclu zurtick den, tier dich anbettdt'. 
For 'zuruckstossen 1 we should prefer 'shrink from', hut the difference of construction here is a 
difficult)’. —- Ibi apparently nowhere else used transitively. 

2 , 10 — 11 . 







i i 


r- ii) (J 


Forsooth , gales cot inf ins and walls (?) are consumed by /ire; (white) the ♦ . of the 

kin/s palace stands firm and endures. 

2 t to. fj f ^ ^ ^ here and in 7, io, and ^ j 7, 9 are possibly plurals of a feminine 

word drt ‘wall' (? cf. 9, 14) that has survived in the Coptic ^oc (Sethe, Verhnm III 92); 

here ol wood, hence Probably quite distinct from two other feminine words q 

‘sarcophagus' (Pyramidtexts M. 427) and 

'chamber' (very frequent in the temple uf 

Dendera). In the second half of this section dr(wi) is masculine, and may be identical with an 
obscure word Simthe 198, ^ [jy Toth, ed, Nav. ioS, 8; 130, 14; cf. too the masculine 

word ^0 Abbott 2, 13; Amherst 2, 2; Pap. Turin 42,6, where the meaning ‘walk fits well. 

All these words are to be kept apart from badr, mdr , sdr, examples of which are quoted Rec. 
de Tran. 21,39 — 4°- " >-*n n,a >’ he a correct form, if the verb be 2 ae. gem., though 

geminated forms art: rare outside the Pyramidtcxts (Scthc, Verbum II £ 106). 

2 , 11 . 

MMP era 'k1d^ 



\ 1 J 





a. So Sethe; the traces fit. 

Forsooth , the ship of the [Southerners] has gone adrift (?). 
Upper Egypt has become dry [wastes ?] 

The tenons are destroyed\ 

2, i 1 

• P' 

Several words of similar appearance must here be carefully 

distinguished, (]) ( or ( swhf) ‘to praise' ‘glorify 1 'vaunt'; construed with w, e. g. 

E D. Ill 140b, 4; /user, Dedic . 99; with u s e. g. Pap, Kahitn 39, 24; Mission 15, 12, 2 (Luxor); 
Pap. Berlin 3049, 3, 7; and with direct object, probably below 7, 14; Anasi . / 15, 2, and in a few 
other passages. In a bad sense ‘to boast T (with n ), Urkunden IV 751. 973. The determinative 

ly that is sometimes found in the writing of this word is perhaps derived from ski. (2) jlfD 
^ sJli ‘ t0 be in COIlfl,s!on ’ ‘ t0 astray' or the like. Cf. P HI <Sn 

of the confusion that took hold of the Sliosu, L. D. Ill 128a; fl Q [1 m‘the sky 
is in confusion’ Pap. Leiden 345, recto 1 3. 3; a siiftilar meaning is appropriate below in i:, 1; 
(parallel to hint) as well as here, and possible in 12,9. The writing with re (here; Pap. Leiden 343. 

Text, Translation aud Commentary. 


recto 7,2; Pap. Leiden 350, recto 5, 15) may be due to a confusion with swh \ (3) Possibly to 

be distinguished from (1) and (:) is |-g {Sint 5, 23; Pruse 14,11; perhaps here 1,5), which 

may refer to a bad quality such as ingratitude’ 1 . 

Dpt metaphorically for the ship of state (so Lange, Sethe) only here. — As Sethe points 
out hbi mat must be taken together, and separated from the following words: ‘the southern town’ 
would be nt rst , not nt Sm (see A. Z. 44 [1907], 5) — One might hesitate between the resto¬ 
rations ® and ® ; the latter would refer to Thebes. 

[cUUl [cl]’ 

{2,12) !)< 



1 1 1 

3' * 1 11 in \\ 

(2. > 3 )|§N % 


-uSL X Q —C Cl 

2 , 12 - 2 , 13 . 


M III QO /! I I I I Ji «««. I 







Forsooth , crocodiles are glut ted ip) with what they have captured. Men go to them of their 

own accord. It fares ill with the earth to of) People say: walk not here , behold it is a . 

Behold people tread {upon the earthl\ like fishes. The timid man does notQ) distinguish it 
through terror. 

2, 12. In this extremely difficult passage Sethe proposes, with great ingenuity, to under¬ 
stand as follows. The crocodiles have more than enough to feed upon; men commit suicide by 
casting themselves into the river as their prey. A foreign word [h]fp or \f\fp may have stood 

in the first lacuna. fl — To continue: we must emend hd-hu n ti or the 

innW iiiiIin 

like; no better are conditions upon the land. Here people tell one another not to tread in this 
place or that, for it contains a Sn\ so everyone walks as carefully as though he were a fish which 
fears to be put in the sn, whatever that may be; cf. Urkunden IV 659 the corpses of the slain 

lay (| ^ ^ ^ n | % . Men are so full of terror that they can no longer distin¬ 

guish the earth (.ra>) from the water. 


2 ^ e 9 

I I J WAM @ 


M I i^ M I J 

1 j 11 



2 , 13 - 14 . 



n o 

a This reading, 00 looger recognisable On the Original papyrus* 

is strongly suggested by the facsimile. 

1) buch are the Conclusions to which ny examination of lhe Dictionary material brought me. Sethe, who hns studied the in¬ 
stances afresh, writes to me suggesting another view, lie considers that originally meant ‘to roar 1 , esp, of Typbouic animals, (cf. the 

passage?; from Pap „ Ltid. 343 and 350 etc., here too metaphorically ScbifT der Stidlandrr kraebt^); the meaning ‘to boast* 'praise 1 he 

regards as secondary and derivative. It seems (o me that If this view be accepted the distinction between twh and jA? becomes very dubious; 
it is at least remarkable that two words of so similar appearance should both denote Typhome attributes; and 1 veiy much doubt the transi¬ 
tion of meaning from ‘tout* to 'praise'. Therefore I prefer my own mode oT interpretation, though of course its assumption of confused 
spellings is by uo means satisfactory. We sorely need early examples of (i) and (j). 

3 ° 

Owfluier, The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage* 

Forsooth , men arc Jew. lie who places his brother in the ground is awrywherci') When 
the officiants ^) have spoken (r), /,'i: [yVt’r’j?| without delay. 

2, 13, W ‘few’; the meaning- of die word is convincingly demonstrated by the following 
quotations: Plankin' 13 0 ^ A [1 ^ ; Pap , Leiden 347, 3, 3 fl J °q'^ > H 0 

1 I I 1 LiJ | WM/H Wvw. e_i I I I I I ^vVwv. 1 I 1 1 ArWw* 

(epithets of die Homs of and below 12,14. 

Sethc points out that dU sn-f >n ti can only be the subject of a nominal sentence in 
which m st nbt is predicate; but for the meaning ‘bury’ attributed to dil >>1 It parallels are wanting. 

2, 14. Rhwnht ‘the learned’, possibly here the officiants at the funeral ceremony. — The 
proposed restoration is somewhat too long, a defect that might be remedied by the omission of 

2 , 14 . 




Forsooth , the well-born man .. without being recognized (?) The child of his 

lady has become the son of his maidservant . 

2, 14. Si si 1 "tile son of a man\ i. e* doubtless a man who was able to point to a well- 
to-do father, in opposition to the base-born slave. Cf. below 4, i; Hat Nub S, 3; Prissc 15,4; 

Abydos III 29; Vatican Naophoros ^contrasted with = ^ 37 (1S99), 72; and 

especially Stele of Tutenkhamon 17 | <==> ^ — I can suggest no plausible 

emendation that will suit the traces in the lacuna. 

The second clause is not at all clear. Sethe thinks that the sense may be: in these times 
when all social relations arc reversed it happens that the son of a mans mistress sinks to the 
position of son of the same mans female slave. Another and perhaps preferable solution would 
be to take ms as the particle (for the writing cf 3, 2) and to read ‘his mistress becomes 


die daughter of his maidservant’ i. e. bumbler even than his maid-servant. But neither explanation 
gives a really satisfactory meaning. 

3 , 1 . 


rwi a | 1 h 

^ I 


* W°“'e w 



a Ms 

* 1 

Forsooth , the Desert is throughout the Land. The names are laid waste. H foreign tribe 
from abroad has come to Egypt. 

3, 1. The emendation (or ^ ( ij, which Sethe proposes, is undoubtedly correct; 

see on 1,9. — Hbi and not hblti must be read in the lacuna, feminine plurals taking the pseudo- 

l) For the reading si (not si) cf. Ihe variant jl (j j MeUtrnitksitlt iS. 

Tod h Translation am) Commentary, 


participle in the form of the 3rd. person masculine singular, cf. 2, 4; 4, 1 3; 9, i. — Pdt must he 
translated 'rr foreign tribe’ (Sctlie „ein Bogenvolk“), as the feminine pseudoparticiple tyti shows. 

3,1 - 3 , 2 . 

mini (3. » mi 

1 I I I V 

Forsooth^ people comet?) * . , , + . * + « , . , There are no Egyptians anywhere * 

3, 2 + If, as is probable, this section continued the topic that was broached in the last, 
rmt must be taken to mean ‘Egyptians'; see the note on i, g* 


jwwvi n a /j "i| h 

Cl Cl • 

^±=,1 O jO I 3T Q 

I I I 



a Ms. -www with a supeifluous *j, as in t, l. 

1 1 l 

Forsooth , /tfA/ rtW Ai/S/r lazuli, silver ami malachite, earndian and bronze , j/iw« of Yebhct 

and ..rtrf fastened on the necks of female slaves. Good things arc in the land\ 

( Ye!) I he mi sir esses of houses say. ivoidd lhat toe had something to eat. 

3, 2. On hmigit and ibht see Brugsch, Sieben jahre der Hunger snotk , pp. 129—130; 
hmigil already Zaubcrspr. f. Mutter u. Kind , verso 2, 6. 

3, 3. Alnh of 'fastening ' beads on a thread, ibid, recto 1,3; verso 2, 6: here too the 
reference is to costly necklets. — Read ^ [ 1 Pand see the note on 2, 4. — 


}(] — relative form, for , ( | ti for A cf- , , 3, 7 and the formula 

frequently so written. 

< 3 . 4 ) 


Forsooth ,. noble ladies, Their limbs ore in sad plight by 

reason of [their) rags. Their hearts sink (r) in greeting [one another ?] 

3, 4* Snm^ sec on 2,5, here metaphorically. — fsywi ‘rags', again bdow in / % i 1: either 
from ts 7 o 1 to be old' or from hy (xc^s) ‘to be light' or ‘worthless 1 . —■ Bti\ in 9, ] determined 
by, ^ ( 1 seems to mean something bad; the verbal stem appears in j IVcni 2 9, and in 

Toth. cd. Nav, 113, 5; also in some late texts quoted by Br,, Wor/erb , Supply 463- — 

^ 0 


The sense may be: noble Indies are now so ill clad that they are ashamed to greet their friends. 

(I.irdincr, Tic Acini unit tans of nil l^yinitin S.-igc. 

3,4 3 , 6 . 

<± s) t. 


MS uVi 

■u^t2'k\^rr,mmmmM ^ •> inn; 

Forsooth, boxes of ebony are broken tip . Precious acacia-wood is cleft asunder 

i i 

3, $. Gmpu transitively ‘to tear asunder’ oflimbs and bones, Pap. Leiden 350 recto 5, 1 1; 
‘to tear up ‘destroy’, of papyrus books, oil M. K. sarcophagus, Pee. dc Tray. 26, 227; intransi¬ 
tively, ‘to break’ of trees, Shipwrecked Sailor 5y. 

3 , 6 — 3 , 10 . 

Wiiiil ik^’k ^ 


o ^ 


0 - 1 \\ lew) § O 

□ ^ 
<? <zr= 

1 Q i n 

jsjwjvc i U 





I f J 


=■ ( 3 t 7) [ 

Pc miMj^r.prr. p^: o-»> mm 


t 1 ."' 1 . 1 '] 




0 l 


\ I * 1 


' 5 ^ 

<=>\\ a q 


™~ ° (3- ■<» in 

Forsooth , builders [of Pyramids Q) have become j fichldabonrcrs, Those who were in 

the divine bark arc yoked together {fy Men do not sail northwards to [Byblos] today , What shall 
we do for cedars for our mummies, with the produce of which priests are buried , ^vV// ///*: 

07/ 0/ which [chiefs\ arc embalmed as far as Keftiu, They come no more. Gold is lacking, 

the .. ... of all handicrafts is at an end[r). The <.) of the kings palace 

is despoiled (?) Ilshat a great thing it is that the people of the Oases conic with their festival 
spices (?). with fresh red met-plants + . ., . t . . of birds . 

3, 6. This section, together with that which follows, forms the continuation and develop¬ 
ment of the thought first touched upon in the last paragraph (3,4—3*6), where the wanton 
destruction of precious kinds of wood was alluded 10. These costly materials ate no longer 
replaced by fresh imports; the cedars of Lebanon, so indispensable in the rites of embalmment anti 
for the construction of the divine barks jm the temples, are fetched by the Egyptians from Byblos 
no more, though they are used by priests and chieftains as far as distant Crete. The Egyptians 
must think themselves fortunate if they still can obtain the comparatively trivial products of 
the Oases. 

Teal, 'L'ramlation au<] Commentary. 


After idw the traces are difficult to read; hpr is rendered likely by the following letter 
(lie plural strokes are probable, and above them there is some sign like i —> . Perhaps j"j 

is the right reading; | does not suit well, for l to build ships’ is in Egyptian usually md/i or 

simply irt, but not kd. Tile sense is not clear: perhaps the ‘Pyramidbuilders' and ‘those who 
w r ere in the divine bark' are the princes and priests of Egypt, who in contrast tu the foreign 
chieftains and priests mentioned below, are now reduced to the position of field-labourers. 

Dpt ntr elsewhere either (i) a mythological ship, cf. Pyramidtcxts , T 93; Ur hinder. IV 366; 
or (2) the divine bark used in the temple ceremonies; so often in tomb-formulae where the 
deceased man expresses the wish that lie may sail therein, or states that he has done so, e. g. 
Mission V 545, Brit. Mrs. side 580; Cairo , M. K. stdc 20564. Such divine ships were usually 
made of cedar-wood. — Nhb 1 yoked', like oxen to the plough. 

3, 7. The conjecture ["’7? ] l %klos’ is due to Sethe, and suits the traces, the 

space, and the context quite admirably. It is now well-known that Byblos was the port from 
which the Egyptians sought access to the Lebanon; see Sethe, Erne dg. Expat. nach dan Libanon , 
]jp. 2. S. — Pio-lrl (cf. below 3, 13; 4, 6} is the NE writing of the old interrogative particle piri, 
pti, cf. Erman, Aeg. Gramm. 2 § 387. — For the spelling of irtu sec the note on 3,3; and for 
similar phrases, cf. 3, 13; 4, 7. 

The next two clauses must be taken as relative sentences, in which the suffix of inw-su and 
by in sft try refer to the: word sm. This is the explanation adopted by Sethe. 1 had rejected it 
for two reasons, neither of which is convincing; {1} bm’-s/t ‘their tribute’ ‘produce’ is difficult, if 
‘their’ refers to sw ‘cedars’; (2) sft- oil is mentioned in the ancient lists of offering (c. g. Mar. 

j-[ ^ ^ b 

Mast. C 2 7; D 47) beside 05 . The metaphor of (1) is indeed hard, but still not 

impossibly so. The answer to (2) is that sft is a generic word, and as such may be distinguished 
from the more specific expression ‘cedar-oil 1 . But there is no reason why cedar-oil should not 
occasionally be called sft, indeed in the magical papyrus Sait 825. 2, 3 it seems to be specially 
so used: the blood of Geb fell upon the ground, and grew; ** ^ 

thus came into existence the cedar, and from its water the cedar-oil’. In Coptic ujc 
iicu&e is cedar-wood, and cu£ic:ciqi is used for ‘cedar-oil’ or ‘cedar-resin’ (see Peyron). 

Sdw/i ‘to embalm ’ cf. ^ | ^ |1 ^_ a | Q Urkundcn IV 538. 913; ^ G 

^nnn o I Sirit. Mus. side 378, 9 — Sharpe, Eg. Inscr, 1 48. Whether the word 

is identical with ’ n Ebers is uncertain, 

3, 8. For the latest discussion of the land Kfiiw (here wrongly spelt) see W. Max Muller, 
Mitt. d. Vorderas. Gcs 1904, 2, pp. 13—15. — Hd and hi seem to be parallel verbs, though 

hi is elsewhere unknown before the New Kingdom. — Jnyf only here. 

3, 9. In left Sethe sees the verb 'to be laid waste’; in this case a word must be lost 

before nl. Perhaps it would be better to emend |j ^ r _ ‘the king’s palace is stripped bare’. 

Sethe is probably right in understanding wr-wy ironically: the products of the Oases were 
Aery insignificant as compared with those of Asia. — Hbyt elsewhere unknown. — Rdmt (often 
wrongly transcribed ddmi) cf. Harris 8, 4; 27, r 1 etc.; Anast. IV 8, 11; and as a product of the 

Gardiner, 5 


GurdincTp The Adinuiiitimis of ;in 

Wady Nat run (Sht, reckoned as one of the Oases, LH'im., Die On sen d. Lib. Waste, p, 29), 
Eloquent Peasant R 9, 

3, lo probably named other articles that came from the Oases. 


3,10 — 3 , 13 . 

0 © Q 



J“ % 


(3. i2) 



*=?*=> m, 

jv^t 1 iln 

1 f\ _ e> 

w o r~n~i _ 

. @ 11 1^^ D 

h!l < 3 . "> ify 

Si* 1 1 1 



I I I 

Forsooth , Elephantine and 7 hints (?) tfre [/Ac dominion ofr\ Upper Egypt Q\ (yet) without 
paying taxes owing to civil strife. Lacking are grain (?), charcoal , 

. . + , . . 77 ^ products of craftsmen .. . /Ac palace. To what purpose is a trea¬ 

sure-house uni haul its revenues} Clad indeed is the heart of the king, when Truth comes to him' 
Lo t every foreign country \eontesr\\ That is our water\ Thai is our happiness ! What shall roe 
do in respect thereof r All is ruin'. 

3, IO. The translation of the first sentence is that proposed by Sethe. Suit, as it stands, 
is the feminine adjective, and the only suitable substantive that can be emended is lirt Properly 
speaking, the itrthul is the old Upper Egyptian palace, the so-called fir-wr (A, Z. 44 f 19071, 17) 
but since later the expression ‘the two }/nuf is used as a synonym for ‘Egypt* (c. g\ Field, 
/user. II 33,5), so here itrt suit might mean ‘Upper Egypt', The sense would then be that the 
dominion of Upper Egypt is now restricted to the country between Elephantine and Thinis, which 
wcre P at a certain moment in the Xfth. Dynasty, the actual limits oi the kingdom (see Meyer, 
Naehirdge zur a eg. Chronologic , p, 24). — It is however not quite certain that Tny is to be 
understood as Thinis; instead of the expected determinative ©, the Ms. seems to have a ver¬ 
tical stroke. 

^ we should 
ee Ebers 30, 5; 

104, 7. — D'hi 'charcoal', see Br. Worierb . Supply 13S1. 

3, i2 + Afr )b t rC below 13, 14; Wcstear 5, 14; 12,^. The contrary is expressed by 
CrG^e. g. ibid. 12, 21; Harris 500, verso r, 5. — The sentence is to be taken, in 
agreement with Sethe, ironically; in his poverty the king; must feel himself happy, if be 
obtain lruth in lieu of tribute. Thus - we have a parallel to wrwy ho JVtiw in the last 
section (3, 9). 

The repetition of ?s makes it likely that the next clause is also ironical. Perhaps we should 
emend instead of tribute, every country comes, L e + the land is overrun with foreigners. 

3, ti. [ /D]yt "civil strife', cf. Siuuhc B y\ below 7,6; 13,2, — In 
probably omit ^ and construe as ab'ive 3, S. — fr/kv possibly a kind of fruit, 

Text, Translation add CoimneniiTy, 


llhi'-H pw may be an allusion to the phrase ‘to be on the "water t -*«» of someone’ i. e. subject 
to him. At all events the first person plural is a comment of the writer. 

3, 14, Pw-lry irt-n rs , cf. above 3, 7. — For wiw r *kw cf below 9,6 and the note on 7, 1. 

3 , 13 — 3 , 14 , 


■] <2>- ci e 


<3. .4) r^] 

x if « <aSn 


i o 2*y @ 

a 1^1 O [ci] ^ I n 

Forsooth, mirth has perished\ and is [no /anger] made. It is groaning that is throughout 
the laud, mingled with lamentations. 

3, 13. Sbt, the old form of cu)fee, cf. Shipwrecked Sailor 149; Pap. Leiden 346, 3, 1; the 
later writings substitute i or ii for A e. g. Sail. IS, 11; Piankhi 6; Pap. Bibl. Nat . 19s, 5, 5. 6. 11. 

3, 14. fmt ‘groaning’ ‘grief; as infinitive below 5, 5. 6. Elsewhere known from Metter- 
niehstele 56 ©PT^^s £== ^l) S ^ e traverse ^(0 her city groaning’; Pap Leiden 34S, verso 1,2; 

12, 3.3; [| c^z. (S ^ j ‘to grieve', Pap. Turin 135,12. Possibly too in Sinuhe R ii 


f Cam 

0 ostraeon ^ ~ Hg 

vs- 11 VJ #s 

pcs -le 1 1 < 




3 , 14 — 4 , 1 . 

* ± ? i k 0 ~ M <8 •- W \ * ** 

A_D 9 

A @ 1 O 1 

a See note p on plate 3. 

For sooth % ail dead are like those who l/ue(:r). Those who were Egyptians^) have become 
foreigners Q) . 

3, 14. Hopelessly obscure. — Nfy wn , cf. 2, 2 and Millingai i, 7, where Griffith sug¬ 
gested ‘the man of importanceb 

4, 1. This is Sethe’s suggestion; rmt as above in 1,9; 3,2. — The last phrase is quite 
untranslatable; elsewhere dll hr w}t means l to place (someone) on the way’ i. e. ‘to direct 1 or 
‘guide'; cf. 5^*^97,251; Totb. ed. Nav, 75, 6. 





"> -ft 

Forsooth , hair has fallen out for everyone. The son of a man of rank is no [longer) 
distinguished from him who has no such father if) 

4, 1. We may have here a reference to the side-lock worn by the children of the wealthy. 
— IVlr is conjectured by Sethe. — For si si, see the note on 2, 14. — hvty ttf sw is very 
unclear; if it is correct we must assume the word ‘father’ to be understood out of the words si si', 
the phrase hvty sw occurs in a vague sense also in other texts, e. g. ^atro 

r.ardiuci^ The Admomlions of an Sage. 

side M. K. 20539, 5; Urhtndcn IV 48; possibly Loo in . || r Mww ^ | Cairo stele 

jl 1. K. 205 3 7; A ^ ^ CaL d ' Mou ' 1 1 7 71 However 1$ ' v0uld 

be an easy emendation. 

Forsooth . on account of noise. Noise is not lacking (ft) hi years of noise. 

There is no end [io\ noise. 

4, 5. There is dearly some play upon the word hiw here, the point of which is to us 
obscure. — For a suggestion with regard to see the note on 2, 6. 




<? 1(2 



; Jncc 

Forsooth , great and small (say : I wish / might die. Little children svy'(?): he ought 
never to have rar/sed (me; to ImeQT). 

4, 2. Wr\ the hieratic sign is different to that employed by the scribe for sr (e. g. 4, 3); 
see Gardiner, I user, of Ales. p. 12, note 9. — After Sr] we must emend hr or hr dd. — Alt-'i 
is perhaps not impossible (see Sethe, Vcrbnm II § 1 50 f), though the infinitive would be preferable, 
the subject of mi being already implied in mr-i. 

4, 3. Very obscure. I have adopted the interpretation preferred by Sethe; sw here refers 
to the father of the children. Another possibility is lo understand tm sw elliptically and to read 
'Little children say ‘would that it did not exist’ concerning life'. 

4 , 3 - 4,4 {= 5 , 6 - 5 , 7 ). 


(5i 6 ) 5 


I I I 

@ Jl 3 T 



? e i 4 

4 _fl o 

io © I 

• 111 

( 4 , 4 ) 

e 1 

8 k®^? l l=k,' 

/- O 1 
/) ._, 


Forsooth , the children of princes are dashed against the walls. The offspring of desire 
are laid out on the high ground. Khnum groans because of Ins weariness. 

4, 3. This section is repeated below in 5, 6 with a short additional clause. Both versions 
are here given together. — Hytio\ for the strange form cf. below 4, 9 

: A—o 

Cv @ 

4 ’ '■ 4 : 5 

— Nhbt ‘neck’ is clearly meaningless, and should be rejected in favour of nht in 5,b; 
nhi seems to be used in the sense of 'to pray for’ ‘wish for* children already in the Pyramid' 
texts, cf. (\v] □ .||| I 111 \V. 601; so too in the late text, Br. T/ics. 92^. 

Text, Tratishtioii and Commentary. 


^ ( < Y => ^ cf. below 4,4; 6 t 14; 7,S; Abbott 4,3 ‘(the possessors of tombs) 

I ^ 1 1 1 I n I arc cast out u l lon ^ ie ground'. In Lebeusnnide 59 ‘burial’ is said to ho 

‘that which snatches a man from his house “ -D ^ T an< ^ casts O 1 ' 111 ) on 

high ground’ i. e. on tlie higher/; the resemblance between this and the Abbott passage is suf¬ 
ficiently close to warrant the identification of the words klnr and Another instance of the 

transition of 1 to nr (/.-) may possibly occur in the words 0 n the name 

IT-m-mlnr, Pap. //id. Turin 4,9; L. D. Ill 2 1 ge) and c~d Six Temples 1 2, 1 2, if these and 

~ g ^~ Harris 17a, 14 are really derived from mil ‘to see’; and a third case of the 
same kind may well be and f? ^ 1 ^nth l ^ eni particles meaning ‘would 

that’. This change of sound is of course not to be confounded with the class of spellings dis¬ 
cussed by Frman, Znr agypt. Wor if or seining , pp. 13—14. 

5,7. The sense must be: Khnum groans over his wearying exertions in creating children who 
are doomed to perish at once. For Khnum as creator of mankind cf. 2,4; and for iW, see 3, 14 note. 



1 O A 

I ^vww\ L^l t 


4,4 (= 6 , 14 ). 

Q Ut. til Q ,r 
(O as Q I 4 

o a_ n $ 

e ]* 


UJ 1 


WWl-1 H 
1 11 

I I 






Forsooth , those who were in the place of embalmment are laid on the high ground. It is 
the secret of the embalmcrs (?). 

4,4 — 6, 14. — For zubt, see the note on 2,7. — Ditto hr klnr seems to have the same 
sense as hi hr klnr in the Abbott passage quoted above in the note on 4,3. 

The second half of the paragraph is probably corrupt. The sense that we might expect 
is: the secret art of the embalmers is thereby made useless. 

4 , 4 - 4,5 (— 5 , 12 — 5 , 13 ). 

The next section, beginning with the words [iw m]s nfl ifov, is repeated below in 5,12 foil, 
as part of a longer paragraph; its consideration is therefore deferred until we reach that passage. 



j] (4,6) Z 


g«qf« 4 . 7 > 






n a 

o tol 







«jlij ws>v k»rr.Mq 

(4.s) ?fi] s 

f.airdInc t, The Adninnilinrim Cif an R^pliatl 

Forsooth , the Marshlands hi their entirety are not hidden , Lower Fgypt can boast of 

trodden roads. What shall one dor Fhcre are no . anywhere. People shall snrelyQ) 

say: e arsed be (?) the secret placed. Pel old, it is in the hands oj (?) those who knew it not like 
those who knew it. The Asiatics are skilled in the crafts of the Marshlands. 

^ 5, The Marshlands of the Delta, hitherto barely accessible to the ligyptians themselves, 
are now opened up and overrun by Asiatics, who have made themselves masters in the crafts 
of those regions, 

4, 6, There is apparently paronomasia between idltiv and dgiytwf and between mhib and 
Ts-mh. — Dg 4 to conceal', Sinulte 4; Prissc 5, to; the causative sdg is much more common. — 

Mtmo hu\ either ‘trodden’ or 1 levelled’ roads; ci\ 0 0 ^ (j ^ g j 

^ jj ^ Toads that were blocked on both sides are (now) trodden (?)\ Crknndcn IV 385, 

\ ^ Rochem - Ed f ou 1 95; Pidil > 1>iscr - 11 aoa - 

4, 7* Sethe's conjecture £ Tfl ^ j J ^ i seems too big for the lacuna, — For xcr r, see the 

note on 7, 1. — We must read 3 secr ct place’; for this phrase, see below 6,6; 

Cairo stele ill. K. 20005, Bcrshell II t 2 1; Louvre C41; Bcnihasan 2, 14; and, with a less literal 

meaning, Urkumlcn IV 966. — In ^ @ sw is for Jl xx (Sethe). 

4, S. Ifm ‘skilled’ e. g. Cairo stele ill. K. 20539; Urkunden IV 555; construed, as here, 
with m, cf. Auast. /, ), i. 

4 , 8 — 4 , 13 . 

< 1 - 

UMi|s‘J<j>n (4, 9) ma“. 



n|fra^u..o)r , ,|',T 


I ’O 

81 fflkKiTf 

ffi w 

t 4 .M) 4 »sra^C^p, 


lc fe:” s m 

^ L ^ 1 '■-I—- 3 

I I I 

H«JL <S.{J* 5 ^!' L h 4 »l® 

* o 



WM [ 



ISPoiiP. ,<4.'3) 

a Ms, 

h Ms. 

r —~~±3 

M S . ^jr 

'i^iil^l ti nn 

11 l Jl 0 t? 11 

a ,k Pw 

o I 

Forsooth let citizens &:(?) placed over corn-rubbers tf). Those who were clad in fine linen 

are beaten , .(?) Those who never saw the day go forth unhindered (?) Those who 

were on the couches of their husbands, let them sleep upon .. . of if) . I say (?) 1 it 

is heavy to me’ concerning (?) ....... laden with 'n (ho-oil. Load them (?) with vessels filled with 

. \Leti\ them know the palanquin. As for (he butler y wear him out Q r). Good 

Test, Translation Commentary. 


are the remedies thereof'. Noble ladies suffer (?) like slave-girls. Musicians are in (?) the chambers 

within the halls (?). JF/W they sing to the goddess Alert (?) is dirges (r). Story-tellers (?). 

over the corn-rubbers. 

—4,13. 'This paragraph teems with difficulties, and the interpretation here offered is 
put forward with, the utmost diffidence, Tin; point seems to lie in the words good are the 
remedies thereof (4,11 —12), which must be ironically meant, as the ne.\t clauses go on to say 
that noble ladies suffer (?) like slave-girls , the female musicians sing nothing but dirges, etc. 'I he 
phrase phrt try suggests that some desperate remedy by which the Egyptians might nnd an 
issue out of their afflictions had been proposed — not seriously of course — in the preceding 
lines, and the occurrence of an imperative )ni) (4, 10) seems to confirm this hypothesis. Now the 
first sentences of the section appear to speak of the degradation of citizens to menial duties, and 
there are references to the palanquin, to butlers, and to myrrh and spices. Is it not possible that 
the general sense may be as follows? However brutally individuals may compel others to cater 
to their personal luxury, all such striving after diversions is vain and futile; the noble lady cannot 
isolate herself from the surrounding misery, and suffers no less than heV maid-servants; even the 
singers and story-tellers within her halls have no other theme than the common woe. 

4,8. Humus is discussed by Griffith in his note on Pap. Kahun 12,5. — Jf in 

WvVA -il L_ 1 

Urknndcn /FS3] is a species of stone; here however it seems, as in some other passages, to 
mean the stone upon which female slaves grind corn with the ‘corn-rubber’; cf. the statuettes of 
female domestics from Middle Kingdom tombs and the similar methods employed in bread-making 
that are still practised in Lower Nubia (Garstang, Burial Customs pp. 63—64 and 128}. In the 
magical treatise Pap. Leiden 343 recto 2, S (= verso 4, 3) the malady or evil spirit is thus ad- 

Q iVVvViO 

O en c 

n ww 

P £ D ‘So grin- 

dest thou (corn) over a corn-rubber, so servest thou over the corn-rubber of P and D\ Simi- 


iarly Prisse 5, 10: ‘A good saying is more hidden than a gem; it is found j^ ( ^ ^ JJ 

in the hand of female slaves over the corn rubbers’ i. e. among domestics in the lowest 
station of life. Note how suitably the preposition hr is used in this connection. Here therefore 
it seems to be said that citizens are degraded to the vilest menial duties. Burnt occurs again 
below in 4,13. — Observe that is here the passive of the sdmf- form, not the pseudoparti¬ 
ciple; an action, not a state or condition, is therefore here described, and in accordance with the 
view of the passage above suggested 1 venture to translate it as an optative. 

4,9, As Sethe points out, hbsy, tmy and wny are imperfect, not perfect, participles; perhaps 
they refer to customary action in the past — ‘those who used to be clad" etc. The meaning of 
the first two clauses (those introduced by hbsy and tmy) is not clear, hor wny we ought appar¬ 
ently to read the feminine plural. 

4, 10. The imperative 1 iwi, on the view of the general drift above proposed, is virtually 
concessive in sense: ‘however much those who are on the beds of their husbands be caused (now) 

to lie on.(i. e. whatever brutal degradation men may inflict on women of rank). 

(yet all such) remedies are futile . No doubt this interprelation is difficult; but it may perhaps be 
more easily reconciled with the rest «if the context than Sethe’s proposal; he regards this as a wish 

4 o 

(riirdTiiGr, The Admonitions of an Kgyplian Sage. 

of the: speaker, who desires such luxury to be done away with. — Sd?t\ here determined with a 
sign that seems to be an imperfectly made has as determinative in 7,10; in both pas* 
sages thr word is contrasted with hnkyt t and obviously denotes some less agreable place of 
repose, In 9,1 ‘waterskin’ appears to occur in a similar, though obscure, context. 

as it stands, can only be a comment of the speaker: ii we accept this view* iwf 
this rt r (for tins r cf, 4, [4) must be translated ‘it (i, e. this slate of affairs) is heavier 10 me 
than’ — what follows being a mere elaborate metaphor for a particularly heavy burden. But (t) 
such a comment would be insufferably abrupt and cannot be made to fit in with the preceding 
sentence, and (2) it seems far from likely dial the mention of ‘myrrh 1 * vessels' ‘palanquin’ in a 
context dearly alluding to luxurious life (cf. ‘butlers' 'musicians' 'story-tellers’) is merely figurative. 

Therefore [ should prefer to emend: 3 f ]ljl ( ‘When the.say ‘It is heavy to 

me’ concerning sdw (unknown) laden with ntki<- oil, (then) load them with vessels full of.: 

llet] ‘them know (the weight of) the palanquin*. The sense would be: do not spare your servants, 
when they complain of the heaviness of their burdens; and this would be another of the ‘remedies’, 
the futility of which is soon to be pointed out. 

4, i i „ Iwfi-st would then be ail imperative, like tmi sdr-sn above, and possibly like fid -.rte 
below. Iii/i has two meanings ‘to load (a person)’ and ‘to carry' ‘support’ a load 1 . — For '»</re 
cf. Mar. A fast. 1) 10.41; fibers 64,6; Cairo stele PI K. 20514. 

4, 12. On the view here adopted nfr pw phrt try is the climax and answer to what 
precedes: fine is the cure which such callous luxury brings! Nfr would then be used ironically, 
as in 3, 1 2. 

cf. 13, s; in Tolb. cd. Nav. 42, 22 apparently an intransitive verb for ‘to suffer’ 
or the like; p. (sae. mfirmae) seems to occur in a similar sense in the Pyrnmidtexts (cf. Sethe, 

AAWWs t_J 

rt WiVrt “t*—* 

Vcrhnm /£ 265); as substantive I jMcticrnichstde 55 ; Rochem. Ed fan I 52 1, 3 24, 

Hnyt ‘female musicians* cf. Western* io, 1; 11^24, In a Theban tomb (Urkunden IV 1059I 

,i 3 L of Ainon and other gods arc depicted carrying the nmit and sistrum, and are therefore 
q 1 1 t 

■ t ^ iVvvw. ^ j ^ 

‘musicians’, rather than ‘dancers’ as Erman proposed. — ^ ^! cf. Piankfu 113; J lelterniehstele 4S; 
Sail. II 7, 2 ; 11,2. 

4, 13. A word ■«==> C1 p" occurs in Zanbcrspr. f. Mutter u. Kind 2,5, but it is dilhcult to 

see what it could mean in this connection. \Vc ought doubtless to emend f° r which 

sec 7,14 note. — For irtku see the note on 1,8. 

4 . 13 - 4 , 14 , 

? VikTiirr, 

— iii 

(4* 14) 

o U 


1 1 

1 □ 

[) The tTAsisiliau of meaning j* interesting: it consists in the conversion of some thing or person move remotely affected by the 
meaning nf llic verb itato its object, Similar instances that 1 h^ve noted arc: and zi’tf 1 lo plant 1 trees, rtnd 'to pltiat’ gardens with trees „ 

An To nod' with approval over something, then To approve’, hf 'In lay bnrc‘ something, Mo uncover \ then "lo remove’ the covering: 

' tg takeaway' something from sortie body, then Mo rob’ n person; rti/ 1 to divide \ especially ’to decide' :i ease for somebody, then 1 to judge 1 ■ 
jnm To feed 1 someone, then To feed upon* something. 

Text, Tran slat ion and Commentary. 


For soot Ik nil female slaves arc free with their tongues. When their mistress speaks , it is 
irksome to the servants. 

4,13- Shm in means ‘to possess’ ‘have rights over’; the meaning must therefore be: 
female slaves feel themselves at liberty to say what they like. 

4,] 4. Dns r , see above 4,10. 

4 , 14 - 5 , 2 . 

® O' 

2 1 




Jl ; 


■ 11 

X > 


x 1 




*5) 2 ifil] 

Jj r l 1 1 

.] .A 

i t A r n \^t) 

u V“7iSMl§SLLi ( 5 ,;) Mih-oTTfiilTS'lM 


For sootIt, trees are destroyed if) . I have separated him and the slaves 

of his house. People will say , when they hear of it: destroyed are cakes (?) for most (?) children. 
There is no food .... Today , like what is the taste thereof today ? 

4,14. This passage again is full of difficulties, and there can be little doubt that the text 
is corrupt. The first clause has no verb, unless we assume that sk and 1on are pseudoparticiples, 
to which the scribe, misunderstanding them, has given wrong determinatives. — ftvd-ni etc. is in 
itself a perfectly intelligible sentence, but the pronoun su> lacks an antecedent and the meaning 
of the whole context is a riddle, hvd is usually construed with one direct object and the pre¬ 
position r (e. g. Sinuhc 224; Ebcrs 108,5; below 12, ij), but the construction with two objects is 
also found, cf. Mar. Kara. 37,31; Mar. Abyd. I 7,70. 

5,1. Hd intransitive, or passive, cf. 3, S. 11. — Ekt ‘cake’ e. g. Ebcrs 17,4; 22,7; 44,2; 

Eloquent Peasant fi 1,301. — For hiw followed by a genitive Lange quotes 

4 5 



I C, 

I'T", EberS ? 6 > 3 * -A- ^ 5 $ |' 1 


1 I 

: AS Urkwiden IV 1 20. 

as ||| a 

5,2. JlJhi is probably repeated twice by error. — The metaphorical use of dpi ‘taste’ for 
the taste of evil, death, etc., is by no means rare; cf. below 13,5; Sinuhc B 23; Anasl. VII 7,1. 


WwW, 0 /p j 


5 , 2 - 5 , 3 . 



2 A I 

Forsooth , princes arc hungry and in distress. Servants arc served (?) 
. ... by reason of mourning. 

5,2. Swn ‘to be in pain’ or the like, cf. below 5,14; Rochem. F.dfon 7403,4. The cau¬ 
sative sswn (in the phrase sswn ib below 11,5; 12,7) is far commoner, and is chiefly employed 
of the ‘chastisement’ of enemies. A substantive swnyt ‘pain’ occurs in Zauberspr. f. Mutter it. 
Kind, recto 3,2. 



GarJiner* The .Admuiiiiions uf an H^ypliaci Sa£ c - 

Forsooth t the hot-headed (?) man says: If I knew where God is, then would I make offerings 
unto him ♦ 


5, 3, 7 'iw thus used* only hero: Prtsse seems to have in a similar sense 
1 *’5 and 0 ^^? 12 - 3 - - It seems impossible to suggest an appropriate reading for the 
indistinct signs that follow /V; yet there can be little doubt as to the meaning of the section as 
a whole, especially as the particle is elsewhere found introducing the apodosis of a conditional 
sentence, e. g. Pap. mag. Harris 7, d'Orbiney 8,5. — J'n, in Coptic tosh, again below 12,5. 
— }ri, here ‘to make offerings’ (Lange, Sethe); the verb occurs in this sense not only in the 
phrase irt ihi, but also elsewhere, e. g. Urkunden IV 123. 

5 , 3 - 5 , 4 . 

O S 3 


O A 

l t 

Forsooth, \Right(\ is throughout the hind in this its name. What men do , in appealing 
to it p is Wrong. 

5*3. The rendering of this passage is suggested to me by Sethe; he understands m rust 
pwy to mean „dem Namen naeh l \ The sense obtained is good, but the trares shown by the 
facsimile after ho ms do not seem to suit the conjecture Ml t. 

5 4^5 5. 

Ci Ci 


n <2 co 1 

Forsooth , runners .... robber. All his property is carried off. 

5.4. The first part of this section is hopelessly corrupt. — T/we cf. Israel stele 5. 

5 , 5 . 

Forsooth , all animals , their hearts zveep . Cattle moan because of the state of the land. 

5.5. For the writing of <T below 15, 14; A. Z. 43 (1906} 35, 7; 37,17- — The 

metaphorical use of rmy with ib ‘heart’ is very curious. — For but see the note on 3, 14. 

5 , 6 - 5 , 7 . 

This section = above 4,3—4 with a brief addition. It has been dealt with above p. 36—7. 

5,7 5 , 9 . 








I q\\o P 'g 

(] — 


%Zy ci 


I I M I 1 


Text, Translation *nd Co mmenlary* 




cs> I 

(j — [(] <2] (5,9) 

A_0 ^ 

iWAW | 

L I 1 

f —"—1 ^ § 


□ i_j o "**“ 


<? | | J 

a Ms, 

Forsooth , terror slaysff)* The timid man .vtfyjf?}:. your enemies. Few 

are . . . . ... Is it by following the crocodile (?) d«f/ cleaving it asunder ? 

A fV slaughtering the lion, roasted on the fire ? A // <?v sprinkling (?) Ail/;. 

. wherefore . that you give to him r It(r) docs not reach him} It ts misery if) 

that you give to him. 

5, 7. Here again ihe suggested renderings can serve no other purpose than to display 
the grammatical structure of the sentences, and to convey some slight impression of the subject 
with which they deal. It is possible that the greater part of the section may not consist, as the 
translation implies, of the words of the timid man: the speaker may be addressing his audience directly, 
and scoffing at their inability to cope with their enemies. —* .5 V, in parallelism with sndw , is 
probably the wrong, but by no means uncommon, spelling of sf 'terror*. —- For nd twt cf, the 
equally obscure expression nd hprw-sn in 13,1. 

5,8—9. We have here three rhetorical questions of like construction following the scheme 
hi }w m (infinitive) u (substantive). Settle suggests that hull may be the rare word for ‘crocodile* 
known from Lcbensm'udc 79; Pap . Leiden 350 recto 3,19. —* For wd see Erman’s note on West- 

car 8, 17. — For | fl of the Ms. we must clearly read (Br. Whirterb. S70). 

5,9. hut ‘calamity’ ‘misery* cf. below 6,8; Metternichstelc 56. 234; the causative shut, 
Lebensmiide 57, 

5 , 9 — 5 , 11 . 

(5. »o) 







A J 0 ^37 £§> E 0 


a Ms. ^ b Perhaps nothing lost, 

Forsooih, slaves f) ... throughout the land . 

all people . A man strikes his brother [the son) of his mother . 
. ruin. 


The strong man send$(j) to 
What is to be done: . .. Cf. Ubmsmiid' .0; 

Whether our text borrows from Lebensmiide or vice versa t or whether both have taken the phrase 
from some other literary composition, may be disputed; but it is obviously necessary to emend 
one or the other* In favour of him being the more correct reading it might be argued that 
the intrusive b in hib is due to the proximity of bw-nb* But in other passages the antithesis to 
sf is nht and not nht hr (see Erman’s note on the Lebensmiide text) and hlb may be under¬ 
stood as *to send for help’. The question must be left open. 

6 * 


(Fulmer, Hie ArimunitiuPS uf an K^yftian Saj'e. 

Sn-f n mt-f cf. Weston' 12,15; mt 'f 11 )nt \/> Rbydos MI 13. The crime here spoken of 
was a particularly heinous one, for in all lands where relationship is counted on the mother’s side 
(Egypt represents the transitional stage), specially close ties exist between a man and his maternal 
brothers and uncles. — hst pzu 'tryl, compare the analogous phrases above 3*13:4,7. 

5, 11. It is tempting to emend ( c f- 3’ a comment of the speaker. 

5 , 11 - 5 , 12 . 

a Ms \\ h Ms. Voh 

w Ji' 

Forsooth, the ways arc . The roads arc guarded. Men sit over the bushes until 

the benighted {traveller) comes, in order to plunder his burden. What is upon him is taken away, 
lie is belaboured with blows of the stick, and slain wrongfully. 

6, i 1. /fizzy, if correct, must be a w/r&’-form from hiaoy ‘night’meaning the traveller who 
returns home in the night-time; else the suftix of Sipwf would be left without an antecedent. 

5,12. The latter part of the section, from nhm onwards, is repeated below in 13,5. — 
ijiun only here in this sense; it is perhaps the verb ‘to smell’ metaphorically used. — M rtf, 
cf. below 11,5; 13,5; Rekhiuerc (O, rS; Shipwrecked Sailor 149, 

5,12 - 6,1 (= 4 , 4 - 4 , 5 ). 

Forsooth, that has perished , -which yesterday was secn {?) The land is left aver to its 

weariness f) like lhe cutting offlax. Poor men . arc in affliction .. .. 

Would that there might be an end cf men, no conception, no birth'. O that the earth would cease 
from noise, and tumult be no morei 

IV*t p Tmn^lruion and Commentary* 


5.12. For the first part of the .section we possess a duplicate in 4,4—-5, here given in 
the lower line of the bracketed text. 

5.13. The second clause has some resemblance to Lcbcnsmude 121 —123; ‘To whom do 

1 speak today; \{$ 7T n© ^T t tlicrc are no just men, the land 

is left over (lit. 'remains ) to wrongdoers’ 1 . The sense would here be: the land is left over to 
its weariness (?), as desolate as a mown field. The comparison fits in well with the first clause, 
where it is said that the old order of things, visible only a day ago, has perished. It is however 
somewhat difficult to take mu as a passive participle referring to nfi, from which it is separated 

by the predicate ifov, if this he felt to be too hard a construction, J may be emended for 
jl'^and nfi ihiv divided from what follows. The translation would then run: ‘The old order 

has perished. He who secs the dawn (/'</-/i), the occasions of his weariness(r) are like the cutting 
of flax’ — this being taken as the type of a fatiguing occupation. On the whole the former 
interpretation is to be preferred, supported as it is by the Lcbeusmi'tde passage. — Gnu ‘to be 
slack’ ‘weak’; a substantive gnu Y is not elsewhere known. — Whi ‘to cut’ corn, or ‘to hew’ 
stone, is a triliteral verh; whit in 4,5, if infinitive, must be wrong. 

5.14. For stew see the note on 5,2. 

6 ''- ‘‘ umult ' ‘uproar’, an abstract word expressing the contrary' of hip 

(Br. W'orierb. Suppl. 934—5); it is already found in the Pyramidtexts e, g. P GC2; cf. hrw knmv 
below 12, 13; Pap. Leiden 346, 2, S, The nomen agentis ‘brawler’ is similarly written e. g. Pyramid- 

texts T 245. For the determinative see the note on itpw 1,2. 



\ Q 

(6* 2) 


I , 

Forsooth^ [men eat] herbs , and wash [them) down with wafer. AJo fruii{}) nor herbs are 

found (for, the birds. ........ is taken away from the mouth of the swine . 

* ... *. hunger. 

6, 1. Men are reduced to eating the food of animal so that nothing is left over for ihe 
latter. — Alter iw ms there is a blank space, in which we must restore wnmtw. Wnm is 
frequently construed with ?n in the Pyramidtexts and the religious literature; elsewhere the direct 
object is usual — S /«, always followed by w/, means 4 to wash down T food with a liquid, and 
frequently occurs together with wnm t. g. Fbers 4, 11. 1 6. 21 ; 38,2. 

6,2, AVy, doubtless the word Fbers papyrus, the product of several 

kinds of tree. — Before ipdiv we must clearly emend either n 'for 1 or hi l by\ — The last 
clause is utterly obscure, and very probably corrupt. 

1 bo I ]>Tcf*r to translate; Ermnn renders N Die Erdc i&t cin Kail von CbcltntcriV. 


Gardiner, Tilt Admumliom of an Sajnr, 



6,3-6, 5. 



MS ( 6 .s) TP 4 * 

I « 


\ I 

\\ J£i \ I CJ 

a, The trices suit this reading, 

h Ms. insens w before mrht. 

c m*. n! 

d Ms. O 

Forsooth , grain has perished on every side , ( People) are stripped of clothes , 

Everybody says: there ?s none. The storehouse is ruined. Its keeper is stretched on the ground. 

It is noQ) happy thing for my hearty r)... Would that I had made my 

roue [heard) at that moment, that it might save ?uc from the pain in which [ am (r) 

6.3. Skteo here perhaps ‘stripped’, either impersonally and passive, or some words being 

lo« before- it. - Tl&'kM'ttlm occurs often in Biers as a product of the Nubian district 
of Md\\ possibly some kind of spice. 

6.4. The suffix of shi'-f demands that the plural strokes of w</i should be omitted. - 
From m sm onwards the text becomes very obscure. Probably it was a comment of the speaker. 
— Sin is an old word for ‘deed' or ‘event 7 and occurs in the phrases sm nfr and snt 'j, see 

hrman’s note, Die Sphinxstde , p. 5. So here sm m r — for the writing of the old word * ° 

| see A. Z. 41 (1904), 76 may be an equivalent for the phrase sp nix ‘happy event’ that 
is found Sint 3,8; Brit. Mvs. 581 = Sharpe, Eg. Inscr. II S3. If this be so should be emen- 


ded in place of m . 


t 6 ' 6 ) 


a Ms. apjiArerdly rs 

Forsooth^ the splendidif) judgement-hail , its writings arc taken away. Laid bare is the 
secret place that was [such formerly}}). 

6,5, £^£"2 occ ^ rs below in hpw nw ^ 6 ? 10; and in 6, 12, where it stands 

in parallelism with Q ^ L ~ — ' ^ 1C two later passages the meaning ‘judgment hall’ 

seems necessary, and it is not unsuitable also here. Wc may further compare Pop. Leiden 347, 12, 1 1, 


‘If this book be read.he (the reader) hungers not, and thirsts not* ^ 

j(| ^ ot;s [10t filter into the law-court, lie does not come forth 

judged from it; (j ' ' p -A ^ ^ ^ CH 7^ |^ if (however) he enters into 

tire law-court, he comes forth acquitted.’ The suffix of sr:u-f (6,6) shows that the preceding word 

Tent, Translation anil t'jminn.tLiiv 


(p ^ is masculine and therefore probably to be read /////, a supposition which is confirmed by 
the paronomasia with hnti in 6,10. It thus seems necessary to distinguish /p^ in our papyrus 
from the feminine ; ^3?=* Rekbnere 2, 14, where the context [joints to the meaning ‘lawcourt' 
or ‘prison’; the latter significance seems required by ,/pj—j in Wcstcar 8,15 for which compare 
the very late writing ® 11 ?a in a similar passage Petrie, Koptos 20a 8. It appears that in the 


writing <(p |—j the Egyptian scribes inextricably confused several words derived from ^ & 

‘in front of and 'to hold back’. An examination of the examples collected for the 

Herlin Dictionary shows the problem to be highly complex, and it must here suffice to quote a 
few examples of from elsewhere, disregarding several other words possibly related but 

differently spelt, such as ‘hall’, etc. Thus we have (P|—j ( 0 probably meaning ‘fortress' 

^ ^ _ Q 

or ‘stronghold’ Hat-Nub graffiti 1,4; 8,9; Louvre C 1; Urkumien IV 184. 758, (2) in ' 

Amenemheb 45; (3) in Cl Cairo stele A/. K. 20023, which in spite of the variant 

[ 7 D ibid, (also Florence 1543,2506; Vienna 66} seems to contain a word elsewhere written 

q n 

, since (4) the frequent title ’ usua Ity 50 written e. g. Cairo side AT. K. 20360. 20477 

(ivr qualifies the whole of what precedes cf. T '^' ~°b 22 )’ * s given in his tomb to 

a man who in Pap. Cairo 1S bears the title |{jjj 2$ Sfjl cf A ~ Z - 28 t lS 9o), 65; and in (5) 
[ ^ n Rekhmerc 11, which similar!)' may be identical with tTd Bershdt I 27; Vienna 62. 

As illustrating the confusion of the verbal stems hnr and hut it may be added that '‘harini 

(N. K. only), which doubtless (cf. the variant Horemheb decree) contains the old word 

$— ‘women of the ha run (e. g. Dclr el Gebrawi II 7) is written in the papyrus from 

<9in tji. — Since (P ^ in 6,5 is masculine must 




is made small like see the note on 2,4. 

Gurob Pap. Kakuu 39, 33 
be read, though the letter 

6,6. St stiff), sec above on 4,7. — IVni, if correct, can only mean ‘which (formerly) 
was [St it)', an extremely unnatural and doubtful use. 



‘^k e ii( 1 JL§P)$ (6 ' 7) 

Forsooth, magical spells arc divulged . S>m-ineaniahonsQ) and shn-incantaiionsi^) ore fm - 
straledlf) because they arc remembered by men , 

6,6. This passage affords the direct proof that in Egypt magic, as such, was by no means 
regarded as a forbidden art. It was only when magic was used for illegal purposes, as in the 
case described by the Lee*Ratlin papyri, that it became punishable; in such instances it was the 
end, and not the means, that incurred the penalties of the law. 

4 8 

Gardiner* The Admonitions of an Kpyplifln Sa^e. 

Stinv, sAntiu possibly particular species of incantations beginning with the words 
and ^o" f') (efi ra^|)]i however only mentioned here. 

6,7. Snhi the causative of a rare word n/ii (cf. uhii-ib 12,3) meaning ‘contrary’ 'per¬ 
verse' and lienee perhaps ‘dangeroussee Hr. Wortcrb. 793, Suppl. 689. The causative again 
only Pup. Turin 133,13, where Isis, having induced Re to tell her his name, says to Horus; 

1 lJ havc frustrated (?) him by a divine oath(?) — a very 

obscure sentence. Here one may hesitate between two interpretations; (i) incantations are 'made 
dangerous' because people repeat them; magic lias always the tendency to be employed for evil 
ends, and is therefore best confined to a small number of professional practitioners, (2) incanta¬ 
tions are ‘endangered’ or 'frustrated 1 because so often repealed. This is perhaps the more likely 
meaning: mystery is of the essence of magic, and incantations too generally bandied about must 
perforce lose something of their efficacy. 

6 , 7 -6,8. 



^ TfT! 11! !l ‘ 

r jvwvw 

n <;> 


n. Extremely uncertain; see note £ on plate 6, 

Forsooth , public offices are opened and {their) census-lists arc taken away. Serfs become 
lords of serfs if), 

6.7. For fi% ‘public office* v diwan see Newberry, Proc. S. JJ. A. 2 2,99 foil; the word being 
masculine, the suffix of r vpwf-s must be wrong. Read hiw and wpwt-sn * — Wpnvt 1 specifications’ 
‘schedules\ technically used of the ‘census-lists’ made of people’s households. See Griffiths note 
on Pap , Kahun 9,2. The destruction of such lists would naturally result in slaves claining an 

independence to which they were not entitled, — jj?jj doubtless a periphrasis for the 

common ^71 'serfs’. 

—h \ t 

6.8. The reading is very uncertain; at all events it is meant that serfs usurp a 

position which legally is not theirs, 

6 , 8 . 







the sure corruption below c>, S. 

Forsooth ...... [ -officials] aye slain, and their writings arc taken away. Woe is me 

because of the misery in this fime\ 

6,8. For the form of the pseudoparticiple sm$m\hv) y see the note on 4^3^ — hid, 
see on 5,9. 

Tc*l t Translation and Com meal ary. 




6 ,8—6, 9 . 

t$t&^ f 

kra^« 4 JSTT 


O'" ■< 

Q lit 

Forsooth, the scribes of the tinfm), their writings are destroyed. The corn (?) of Egypt 
is common property. 

6,9. Ssw nu> tmi{tn), similarly spdt out Rekhmerc 3, 2,6; a scribe who later ‘reckoned the 
corn in Upper and Lower Egypt’ previously bore the title hpd Brit. Mas. 828; so 

too we must read the title ^ it Leiden V 3 (the same man is ‘overseer of fields’): Cairo 

stele M. R. 20056; and compare J | ^ 1—1—1 ^ j ^ s=r> Jt? ^ i (together with 'overseers of fields') 

Rekhmerc 3,18. Though these officials have clearly to do with agriculture, yet the determinative 
w makes it difficult to connect tmi(m) with tmi{m) ‘sack (of corn)’ (e. g. Harris 53a 14); nor is 
it probable that it has anything to do with tmiju) ‘mat’ (e. g, Westcar 7,15; Capart, Monu¬ 
ments I 30). — Or, of writings, cf. Petrie, Koptos 8, 7. 

The reading %iht is not quite certain, and no such word seems to occur at an early date; 
cf. however ^ in die Ptolemaic texts, e. g. Mar. Dead, I 18; II 42b. — The expression hiU 

\ntw-ni occurs below 10,3 in a very similar context, and is evidently a proverbial phrase like our 
'common property’ ‘dirt cheap'. The original meaning ‘I go down, there is brought to me’ doubt¬ 
less conveyed the nuance ‘I have only to go and help myself 1 . The facility with which the 
Egyptians coined such phrases and employed them as simple substantives is surprising. I have 
quoted several examples Rec. dc Trav . 26,14; scc too below 6,12 pr-hif. 


Forsooth, the laws of the judgement-hall are cast forth. Men walk upon {them) in the 
public places. Poor men break them up (?) in the streets. 

6,10. see the note on 6,5. — Dha r hnt only here; for the meaning assigned to 

r hut some support may be found in the expression <==> | which means ‘to go 

out' in Lebensmude 82. 131; r hnt in Shipwrecked Sailor 66 is quite obscure. 

The reading ‘on account of it’ gives no sense; possibly we should emend hr-sn , 

referring to hpw and understand hnt hr-sn literally ‘walk upon them’; with this emendation the 
second and third clauses become parallel. — Iwyt ‘quarter’ of a village or town; see Spiegeiberg, 

[) This sign is only approximately correct. 



Ctmlincr, Tlir Atlnuniituins of an tfgyplmt 

Rechmtngen p, 55—6- Hitherto the word was unknown before tlie Nh K; it occurs however in nn 
unpublished magical text of the Middle Kingdom from the Ramesseum, 

Ng (3^0 infirmae) L to break open\ ci\ Eloquent Peasant It 1,277; 28,^2, 

Berlin 13272 ™ //. Z. 36(1896), 25, The construction with m is elsewhere unknown; should we 

read n ^0 ? 

S xl1 1 1 

6, : 1. Afrt, or more properly mrrt {Sint IV 31) means ‘street’ or tht: like;; 

rf. hi;low 6, [3 and Erman’s remarks A . Z. 39 (1901), 148. A particularly clear instance is 

Sail. 11 5,4 = Ouibell, Hieratic Ostraca 76; 1 the barber betakes himself l_T^ <=> Lfl^ 

from street to street to seek whom he may shave'; see too Diimichen, Baugcsckichic 39. Minin' 
mrrt in an obscure context Eloquent Peasant B 1,300. The reading of the Ms. 7 ^° 5 C ~3 j 

is due to the misunderstanding of the determinative [p or LJ~i (the latter already Benihasan I 44) 
by the scribe. As in Mod below 8,2 and Jin S,ii, he has substituted yj for the unfamiliar sign; 
then, reading this /_•>, he has added the ]>honetic complement i; the spelling thus obtained is the 

exact counterpart of I @ ^! ^ or 5. 1 3 1 ^7 P ^ | f° r nir similar writings 

occur elsewhere in N. K. papyri, cf. A. Z. 41 (1904), 76. In 0, 13 however, if my reading of 
the traces be correct, Lfl lias been properly retained. 

6 , II. 



q 1 


Tim\ PfVB'ffkk'fJLflJW 

That {former) 

Forsooth , the poor man has come to the estate (?) of the divine Ennearf , 
procedure of the houses of the Thirty is divulged. 

6,ii, The first clause perhaps means that through the publicity now given to the legal 
code poor men presume to sit in judgement like the gods themselves. — M z blyt\ note the writing 



ro 1 


> A 

with b, which is conclusive as to the reading of the word. Cf. 

^ m ( e P , ' t * iet °f die Vizier Nebamon} R././/.47; *0 Cairo slele M.K.i 0339; 

and the obscure passages Totb. cd. Nav., 125,14; Totb. cd. liudge 115,6. This evidence is suffi¬ 
cient to establish the connection of mbiyt with the frequently mentioned officials called ‘the Thirty' 

R m 1 w ^ lose judicial character is rightly emphasized Br. JVorierb. Si/ppl. 927—9 and Maspero, 

At. Egypt. II 197—201. Maspero (1. c.) points to the late colouring of the account given by 
Diodorus 1,75, w ho describes the supreme tribunal of Egypt as consisting of three boards of ten 
judges chosen from the three cities of Heliopolis, Thebes and Memphis; and he therefore refuses 
to regard this tradition as anything but romance. For Maspero n in mbtyio and rn'biyt has nothing 

to do with the sense of those words, but has a purely syllabic value. This view is difficult to 
accept; it seems far more probable that a court of thirty members did exist in Egypt at some 
early period, and that the account given by Diodorus contains a reminiscence of it. though in 
describing it he is guilty of anachronisms. Nor is it impossible that the titles ‘great of the Ten of 
Lower Egypt' and ‘great of the Ten of Upper Egypt* (see A. Z. 44 [1907], 18) are in some way 
connected with this tribunal of Thirty, though in what manner we have no means of ascertaining. 

Text, TrmtJalioD and Commentary. 


6 , 12 . 



e n.'5r 

Ci I <zr> 


Forsooth, the great judgement-hall is thronged [?). Poor men some and go in the Great Houses, 

6,12. For /PCTi see the note 011 6,5, — Pr hi-f lit. 'he goes out and in' must be an 

expression analogous to hti-i hitw-ni that was discussed above in the note On 6,9; its meaning 

here is apparent from the context. Slightly different in (Jrknnden IV 387 '] consecrated their 
temples =L f\ ^ (su that they were) provided with throngs of people^)’. 

Soil iyt, cf. Bcnihasan I 44,2. — I/wl wryt elsewhere Only in titles like that of the Vizier 

!k | Q J -* Gie s ’ x ‘Great Houses’ appear first in the 5th. Dynasty (A, Z, 28(18903,48), 

and though still mentioned in such titles as late as the New Kingdom (e. g. Rekhmere 4) had 
doubtless fallen into disuse long before that period. 


I#! f 6 ' 1 ^ fl(’ e ^!®e$ikvi‘k : 


?M "1 

£3 \\ 



(6, 14) 


a For llie reading of the M5, see note o on plate 6 . 

Forsooth , the children of princes are cast out (?) in the streets. He who knows says it is 
so. He who is ignorant says no. He who docs not hunv it, it is good in his eyes (r). 

6,12. The whole of this passage occurs in a corrupt and somewhat different version in 
the htstmcfiONS of Amcnemhct /. The text as given by Griffith, A, Z, 34 (TS96), 4S is here 
quoted m cxienso for purposes of comparison: — 

Millingeu (J p [j 
Sail. II (]: 

e ml 








'// VirtlWi “““> 

Pk f > „ -1 

' 1 | O O O 


© 9T, =*=•« 

• Q ^_TL^ <—■> 


A 1i 1 . 1 

1 O O O 


:M« 4 kt 

In spite of all differences of detail it is easy to recognize that the quotation from the 
Instructions is essentially the same as the section 6, 12—6, 14 in our papyrus. The literary question 
raised therehy has been discussed in the Introduction p.-3- 

6,13. Mrt, see the note on 6, 11. — to sa >‘ >’ cs ’ as ver h, of. Louvre C 21S; 

Sail. Ill 10,4; similarly <2 d'Orbiney 19,5 and Krman's note A. Z. 29 (1S91), 59; hence 

the concessive particle |©^jj B. Z. 43 (1906), 42. 


Uurdinct, I'he Admoiiilions oi mi Egyptian tingf, 

M b'dt was conjectured to mean ‘no’, though on somewhat .scanty evidence, in my Inscription 
of Ales, p. iS, note 34. Iksides the present conclusive passage, other instances arc now forth¬ 
coming. In an interesting mythological text hitherto overlooked (/h/. Turin 134,6—135,6) Setli 
tries to prevail upon I lorus to reveal his true name. Horus replies with all manner of ridiculous 

answers, to which Seth always retorts ^jv, Jf^j ° ^ J K ‘no. thou art not’ — repeal* 

ing the name that Horus has mentioned. Finally Seth abandons his questioning in despair J I bUt 
further occurs after ‘lie says’ or the like in several New Egyptian texts: an unpublished letter 

from Gurob (Petrie Collection); Louvre Ostracon 697; Pap. Turin 92, col. 1,2. See too Jj(] |jj) 

in liters , and Schafers interesting comments in A. Z. 42 (1907), 132—3. 

As the text stands, a distinction is made between (1) the man who knows and admits the 
fact that the children of princes are cast out in the streets, (2) the ignorant man who denies it, 
and (3) the man who does not know of it, and is indifferent to its truth or falsehood. While 
possible, this interpretation is not quite easy; the distinction between (si and (3) is trivial and 

artificial. It is therefore possible that we should read j ^ ^ O u * t ' 1 " Hi//ingen — a far 

better text than our Leiden papyrus. In this case we should have to translate: ‘The ignorant 
man says no because he does not know it; it is fair in his eyes', i. e. his ignorance makes things 

seem to him quite in order. Perhaps too p p of MilHagen is preferable to 
Leiden text; ‘it is empty, meaningless' instead of ‘fair, good’. 

in the 

6.14 (-4,4). 

The section 6.14 = 4,4 above, and has already been translated and annotated on p. 37. 


(7,1) I 


l I ^ 

Behold p the fire has mounted np on high. Its burning goes forth against the enemies 
of the land * 

7,1. From here until 9,6 the beginning of each new paragraph is marked by the words 
mitn or ntiin is , these words replacing the formula Uv ms that served a like purpose from 1,9 
to 6,14* Between mitn and mitn is there is no difference of meaning beyond the slight shade 

of greater liveliness imparted by the enclitic is. The use of the plural mitn instead of 

is an indication that a number of persons are here addressed, a point that is later confirmed by 
the plural imperatives hdm and shlw and by the use of the pronoun ol the second person plural 
on the tenth and eleventh pages. 

Unlike the sentences that precede and follow we have in 7, 1 a reflexion of a more general 
kind 1 . The Mire' referred to must be an image for the accumulated evils previously described 
with such wealth of detail So terribie has the conflagration become, that even now it is on the 
point of consuming the t enemies of the land 1 to whose agency it is due. Ominous words, quite 
in the spirit of Hebrew prophecy! 

1) On this sentence see the introduction, p* S > note 3. 

Texi, Transition ami rumnicntaiy. 


SS't r occurs often in our papyrus, aiul particularly often on its seventh page; I take tills 
opportunity of discussing its idiomatic use. A large mini her of examples arc collected hy breasted, 
[Free. S. B. /L 23,239 folk) who proposes to translate 4 to be about to’ 4 to begin with'; though 
as he himself admits, cases occur where neither rendering is very suitable. What Breasted ap¬ 
pears to have overlooked is that in almost all the instances quoted by him the reference is to 
the occurrence of something evil. The only unequivocal exception known to the Berlin Dictionary 
is Toil. ed. Nav. 30b; ‘This chapter was found by Hardief, who found it -f J <=> 

" <3& "P(j ; ']J when he was about to hold an inspection in the temples". Everywhere else the 
notion of a logical development in a wrong direction, deterioration , is present in a greater or 
less degree. In some instances the physical movement seems to be uppermost in the thought of 

the writer, as in Breasted’s instance no. 16 ‘the troops of the prince of Naharina. 

had come to fight with his Majesty’; more metaphorically no. 7 ‘this road which .ff"| £^2 <=> | 
becomes narrow' i. e. grows narrower the farther one proceeds along it. In other 

examples the idea of movement is restricted to a minimum, as in instance no. j ^ 

‘an evil thing has come to pass in this temple", where Breasted 
translates, to my mind wrongly, ‘a bad tiling is about to happen in this temple’. Quite con¬ 
clusive arc such instances as no, 10 (cf, 11 — 13) (j ij^j] fcpgj‘his Majesty 

found (the temple) gone to ruin’, clearly not ‘beginning to go to ruin’. In these and many other 
cases die sense of deterioration , harmful development, seems alone to be connoted by wl. From 
this constant association of rc^ with words of evil import must be derived the curse exemplified 
in ‘(perdition) befall his name’, Petrie Kopies 8, 5; ^ ^ ^ 3 =g 3 . <0 j| ^ 

“do not swear (?): ‘perdition befall his Majesty’ “ Sinn he 74; and ^ n ® ^ -^T| 

“he who shall speak evil saying: ‘may her Majesty fall (into perdition)' “ Deir c! Bahari 61, 16. 
This usage is probably the origin of the Coptic -xi-or*. ‘blasphemare’. The instances of wt r 
contained in our papyrus are difficult, but may be explained at least in part in the light of what 
has been said above. Here in 7, 1 the ‘fire’ is regarded as something disastrous; whence the idio¬ 
matic employment of vei. A curious impersonal use is found in several passages; in wi r Sk 3, 13; 
9 ,6; r sswi 7,2; r sbi 7,3; ivi r hbi 15, 1 ; quite normal on the other hand are tv 3 r 
hot 7,2; tcJ r hkrw 9 , \ with preceding nominal subject; so too the obscure ivitl r sl-mw in 7,4. 
IFi r sidtif) in 4,7 is perhaps an example of the curse. 

era occurs in the libers for a ‘burn’ ‘Brandwunde’, but is not known elsewhere in 
tile abstract sense ‘burning 1 . — Hftm f.i, cf. 9,6. 



Behold, things are done, that have never happened for long time pastf): the king has been 
taken a way If) by poor men. 


< Jartlificr* TIic Atlinuiiiimm of an Egyptian 

y,i. The construction of the first two clauses is strange, and the proposed rendering is 
not beyond suspicion. — For p ?, see my forthcoming article in JL Z„ 45. — £ j as adverb 

of time, cf, Delr cl Bahari 84,9; L. D. HI 140c, 6, in both examples with sr Uo decree'. 

For st/ we may hesitate between the renderings Ms educated' and l is taken away 1 . The 
following sections suggest that the latter alternative should be given the preference; perhaps here 
already the reference is to the robbery of royal tombs. 


r~vr ~1 


Behold , he who was hurled as a hawk is . * 
come empty* 

. , What the pyramid concealed is be - 

7,2. J\rs m hik i. e. of course the king, whose comparison to a hawk is ton common to 
need illustration: the death of the king is described as ‘flying to heaven’ S inti he R 7; Ur- 
kuuden IV 58. 896: dQrbiney 19, 3. — &fdi possibly a l bier\ to judge from the determinative (here 
not quite accurately reproduced) in the only other instance that we have of the word: this is in 
the Theban tomb of intf-)kr , where among the scenes depicting the burial ceremonies men bear¬ 
ing a kind of chest on their shoulders may be seen; tho accompanying words are as follows: 

WiLhout altering the text we might now render: ‘He who 
was buried as a hawk is (now) a (vacant) bier'; but this meaning is strained and not very probable* 
In the second half the section 'that which the Pyramid concealed 1 may be, as Sethe points 
out t the sarcophagus: but such a periphrasis would be harsh and artificial in the exLreme* Should 
wc emend (| 'the hidden chamber of the Pyramid’? In either case we might expect 

wifi instead of w). 

Thus much at least is clear: the passage refers to the robbery of royal tombs. It is the 
earliest known allusion to this theme, of which the later history of Egypt has so much to tell; 
see the interesting account given in the introductory chapter of Newberry and Spiegelberg’s Ex¬ 
cavations in the Theban Necropolis. 

7 , 2 - 7 , 3 . 


u i i 


( lan flk®S' 5! ‘ < 7 ' 3) Tiki 

Ci I 


w o 

rn Vni 





Behold\ a fno lawless men, have ventured to despoil the land of the kingship. 

7,2. On the impersonal and deprecatory use of wi see the note on 7.1. — SswJ pro¬ 
perly l to render poor' ‘to impoverish*; cf. 9,6 and the note on 2,4. 

7 , 3 - 7 , 4 . 

Behold , men have ventured to rebel against the Uniats, the . of Re. which pacifies 

the tzva lands . 

Test, Translation and Commentary 


7,3. IV i, see on 7,1. — Instead of shr, that could only be construed as an attribute 
cjf Re, we should doubtless read p ITI ^ • agreeing with irt. 

7 ,+. 

k o Q 
^—df 1 imp 

0 ^ WM>( G 

■ I K 




A-uVWy ^ • 

a M>. 

Behold , Ihe secret of the land, whose limits were unknown, is divulged. The Residence is 
overturned in a minute, 

7,4. For the passive participle bum see Sethe, Verbum II £927. — should obviously 
be emended to ivhn, the primitive sense of which is *to overthrow a wall’ (so Toth, ed, Nav. 169,6); 
the verb does not seem to be found intransitively used, so that probably the sdmw-f form whnf 
should be read. 

7 , 4 - 7 , 5 . 

Behold , Egypt has come to pour out water. He who poured water m the ground, he has 
captured the strong man in misery^}'). 

7,4. Sethe points out that this section, as it stands, is susceptible of the above trans¬ 
lation. — Styt mw always means l to pour water' as an offering (for Paheri 9,52 sec Sethe's 
note Urkinideu IV 123) and this may have been regarded as a servile action. 

7, 5. The second clause may be corrupt, as the literal translation yields no satisfactory 

sense, A_ d -vwwx looks like a gloss (Lange). 


****** ’ 

7 , 5 - 7 , 6 . 

4 koO Pf 

X l 

(7, 6) 1 

T / 

Behold, the Serpent is taken front its hole. The secrets of the kings of Upper and Leaver 
Egypt are divulged. 

7, 5. Krht is an interesting word, the meaning of which has not been duly appreciated 
hitherto. It is clearly the spirit of a place or a family, conceived of in the form of a serpent 
(tpht is decisive on the last point). In the description of the ruin that had befallen the temple 

of Cusae it is said; ‘children danced upon its rooftop ^ K: 

spirit of the place affrighted (them) not 1 Urkumien IY F 386- Similarly Hathor is called ‘the good 
krht who stands upon her soil* Mar, Dcmhra U 79. Princes of ancient race regarded themselves 

Gardiner, Tlit Admooilions of an E^ptinn Sa^c, 


as incarnating the family spirit in their own persons, and arrogated to themselves such epithets 
11:5 <^,1 1 ‘spirit of ancient clays’ Siut 4,8; _ ‘ a family- 

spirit remaining in the land" Hat Nub Graffiti 1,3; 11,2; a princess is called 

Cairo stele M. K 1 , 20543. Mere the spirit of the old Pharaonic stock must be meant. The word 
occurs again below 7,7. 

7 . 6 - 7 , 7 . 


Behold , the Residence is afraid through want. . in order to {?) stir feuds 


7.6. M giu't , cf. below S, i. 14; the substantive giwt, Prisse \ 3, 7 ; Pap. mcd. Kalian 1,21. 
The expression ttgiw ‘without’ (see Erman’s note on Lebensnmde 64) contains a substantive with 
similar meaning, but of masculine gender. — The beginning of the second clause is certainly 
corrupt. — For hi'yt see on 3,11. 

7 . 7 . 


Behold, the land has . iinik confederates. The brave man , the coward 

takes away his properly. 

7.7. Ts-nf cannot be translated as it stands; should we read ts-nf slew as in 1,3: — Hr 
smiy, cf. 2, 1. 

7 . 7 - 7 , 8 . 

<». s > fitf, Jnk'-f 

Behold , the Serpent . the dead. He who could make for himself no sarco¬ 

phagus is (7 1070) possessor of a tomb. 

7.7. On hr hi see above 7,5 note. — Nnyw ‘the tired ones' a common designation of 
the dead, sec Br. Worterb. 775; already in Lebensmiide 63. 

7.8. For Ail see the note on 2,7. 

7 . 8 , 

1 Ms, | 

Behold , lhe possessors of fombs arc driven onl on the high ground* He who could make 
for himself no coffin is {non*) (possessor) of a IrcasutyQ). 

Text, TnmsUlkrn and Commentary. 


7,S. W'bt is here to be translated ‘tomb*, see the note on 2,7. — For kinr see 4,3 note. 
— AJ pr-hd ‘in the treasury' makes little sense, and one possible solution is to Insert nb before 
pr-hd There is however another possibility, namely that a word is lost after ir nf: ‘He who 

made for himself no <.) is buried out of the treasury’ i. e. his burial equipment is furnished 

from the royal treasury. In favour of this view it might be urged that Lrs is here determined 
as though it were a verb; but the use of the preposition m would be quite exceptional. The 
first alternative is to be preferred. 


7 , 9 . 

Behold, (his has happened {to}) men: he who could not build himself a cell is now posses¬ 
sor of walls. 

7,9. Rmt cannot be attached to what follows; of the numerous sentences in our papyrus 
similar to the second clause here (2,4; 4,9; 7, S bis, 10. 11. 12. 14; 8, 1, 11; 9,4. 7; 12, 11) the 
subject is always tm, never rmt tin. The simplest way of emending the text is to insert 
before rmt\ the sense is however not very satisfactory, and the first clause may well conceal some 
deeper-seated corruption. — For drit see the note on 2,10. 

7 , 9 — 7 , 10 . 

1 \£L\ \ \ \ \ O I YL ■ 

O 71 J e: 

a 1 

(j^]j l °) 


7 i 

b In the Ms, sumds, not here, but afte 

Behold, the judges of the land are driven out through the land. The 
out from the houses of kings . 

are driven 

7,9. The correct reading may be either r it or Id t}\ one of the two prepositions given 
in the Ms. is superfluous. — A substantive has obviously been omitted before the second dr. — 
Pryt is not uncommon in the New Kingdom as the writing of the plural of ^ e. g. Jnser. dedie . 47; 
Horemheb decree 34. 36. 38;, perhaps we have here the plural of a . 

7 , 10 . 


Behold , noble ladies are upon . Princes are hi the storehouse . He who never 

slept upon walls {}) is (now) the possessor of a bed. 

7, 10. Sdw, as was pointed out in the note on 4,10, must refer to some particularly un¬ 
pleasant kind of sleeping place. — Sn ‘the storehouse’ is often mentioned as the place where 
the slaves captured by the Pharaoh in his wars were confined or employed; thus to say that 

Gardlpcf. 8 

Gardiner* The Admonitions of an Egyptian iin^c. 

‘princes art; in the storehouse’ is equivalent to saying that they arc: reduced to the position of 
slaves. -— Drhvi ‘walls’, see the note on 2, 10; if this be the meaning of the word here, and if 
hr be correct, we must understand the phrase to mean ‘he who never slept even upon a wall', 
where he would be safer from snakes and scorpions than if he slept upon the ground. We 
should expect however ‘within walls’ or ‘cm the floor’; and it is possible that drhvi has some 
other significance here. 



YWW 1 

\ \ I 



I! \'Si' [I > ^Ib 

1 D 

0 ^* 7 . 

Behold , the possessor of wealth (mow) passes the night thirsting. He who begged for him¬ 
self his dregs is (now) the possessor of bmols full to overflowing]?). 

7, it. Tiht — the word is feminine and has here a wrong determinative — occurs fre¬ 
quently in the medical literature, where it is found in the phrases a 

(Kalian med. Pap. 2,27; 3, 15; and so often in Ebers ) and in tiht nt irp (Ebers 33, 15. 17). 

— The suffix of tihi-f refers to nb iht. — Shriv is elsewhere unknown. 

7,11—7, !2. 



I © I I 

J o\ 8| 

Behold , the possessors of roles are fend) in rags. He who never wove for himself is {now) 
lhe possessor of fine linen. 

7,11. see Br, Wbrterb. SttppL 1390. — For Isywt sec the note on 3,4. 

tZi ^ 





Behold , he who never built for himself a boat is (now) possessor of ships. He who pos¬ 
sessed the same looks at them , but they arc not his. 

7,12. Sethe’s conjecture ”j is extremely probable, as it gives a good contrast to im 
mdh nf haw and is easier as the antecedent to hy and si than ^ A | 77 *i * n ^ ie com P oun d 
expression nb f/w ‘wealthy man’ (sec on 2,5) would be. 






___ y iie e i 

Behold , he who had no shade is (/tend) the possessor of shade. The possessors of shade arc 
. . + . . storm. 

Text, Translation and Commentary* 


7, 13. Swyt, of which this was the only example known to Brugsch ( Worterb. Suppl. 1173) 
is by no means an uncommon word. Wherever it occurs in an intelligible context it appears to 
mean either ‘shade’ or ‘shadow’. A few instances will suffice: a man prays 'to go in and out 
from my tomb, a ^ QQ 1 ^ that I may be cool in its shade' Louvre C 55; ‘the king 

sat down ^ «=* in the shade of this great god’ Side of the Sphinx S 1 ; Isis 

' ' l * £‘ VcS s h at ' 0w with her wings’ Bid/. Nat., Hymn to Osiris 15; 

‘a town P* easant shadow’ Pa fieri 3; fj [V) ^’j [S ^ ‘when the shadow 

had moved round’ (i. e. when it was afternoon) Urkundcn IV 655. — The importance of shadow 
in an eastern land has often been emphasized by travellers. The first clause must mean: he who 
was formerly unable to shelter himself can now do so. The second clause must somehow contain 
an antithesis to the first, such as: ‘those who (formerly) found shelter are now exposed to the 
stormy winds IVhi is however obscure; Griffith, in his note on Milhngen i,S {A, Z. 34 [1896],40) 
connects it with whl ‘pillar’, but he is wrong in his interpretation of Swyt here. 


I I I 

7,13 — 7 , 14 * 

r q 

( 7 , * 4 ) 



■ -ft? 5 *- 


Behold , he who was ignorant of the lyre [now] possesses a. harp. He who never sang for 
himself (ftow) vaunts ike goddess Alert. 

7,13. Didit , see Br. Wdrlerb. Suppl. 1395, who quotes the words written above the 
picture of a harper in the tomb of Rameses III J_^ J _ a \\ harper(?) who is in the 

netherworld’. In the very late Pap. Leiden 3a (partly published by Brugsch, Thesaurus 519—524) 

> sic 

« -0 <3.^ ‘ Mt 

khantenmerti, his hands are upon the harp. He who is in front of Kus plays upon his lyre’. 
Hence too evidently comes the phonetic value ■se for the hieroglyph of the harp in Ptolemaic times. 

7, 14. For swk ‘to praise' ‘vaunt’ and its construction with a direct object, see the note 
on 2,11. — ' 5 name: °f each of a P a * r °f goddesses who are distinguished as 

‘Mert of Upper Egypt' and ‘Mert of Lower Egypt’; see A. Z. 44 (i 9 ° 7 )> 18; 

Lanzone, Diz. diMitotogia, 317—S; and the evidence collected by Grdbaut, Trav. 1, 125—6. 
I am indebted to Dr. Junker for calling my attention to some Ptolemaic passages where these 
goddesses are connected with music. In Mar. Dend. II 66 a. b. they are depicted playing the harp 
before Hnthor, and bear the titles ^ and 

> m i 

^ ‘lady of the throat’. This epithet, 

no less than the likeness of the names, has no doubt contributed, as Dr. Junker points out, to 
the frequent confusion of the d^'Z-goddesses with the goddess of Truth Alii e. g. Mar. Dead. II 2. 62a. 
Further instances of the J/rAgoddesscs as musicians may be found c. g. Diimichen, Rcsuliate 19,2; 

l) lirmau is wrong, in bis note on this passage, iu understanding as the equivalent of rrt ; for ’in the shade of the Egyptians 

usually wrote n huyt. This is perhaps due to the fact, tbm the visual sense 'shadow' was always in the foreground; a musi therefore sits 

down not "in the shadow of' a building — this may have seemed a wnirestm — but * because of Us shadow", 



Gardiner, The Admonitions of mi M^ypiian 

2 1,4’ 50, i i; Rochem. Edfou 1 341. It is not at all improbable that die d/W-goddesses were singers 
from the outset; their arms are extended like those of singers, and the determinative o—^ is that 

which in the Old Kingdom accompanies the verb § jl ^—a ‘to sing 1 . Two male deities, both of them 
forms of Homs, cannot he wholly dissociated with the d/r/god desses; the one is ^ 7 »ffy/J«n 7 o<; 
of Sdn (IJrugsch, Diet. Geogr. 505}, and the other Mhntnmrt) or Mhntnirti 

( e . g. Pyramid texts P 44. 494; Toib. ed. Nav., 18, it); it can hardly be mere accident that the 
latter god is described as playing on the harp in the late papyrus above quoted. Above 4,13 

J ^=3:.-Tr a 


■Tf 3 is probably, as wc have seen^ to be. emended into 


7 , 14 . 



‘. ra a 

Behold, those who possessed vessel-stands of bronze — not one jug is adorned for one 
of them (? ?). 

7,14. Wdh is the name given to vessel-stands fitted out with the vessels that belong to 
them, see lir. Worterb. 301 and Griffith, Hieroglyphs pp. 54—5. — The meaning of wnh here 
is uncertain; perhaps it may refer to the custom, well-known from tomb paintings, of garlanding 
such stands with wreaths of flowers. — It seems more than likely that the text is out of order. 
We expect two parallel or contrasted sentences; possibly a few words may be lost after ‘bronze’. 
The Ms. reading of the last words must be transliterated hnw w n w hn\ the words w im can 
hardly refer to >:bn\ and if referring to wdhw , emphasize the plurality, of that word in a strange 
way. Possibly the archetype had hnw w bn ‘a single vessel thereof. 

7 , 14 — 8 , 1 . 

a Ms. has a tall meaningless sign after 

Behold , he who slept without a wife (?) through want finds precious things. He whom he 
never saw if) stands and .(?). . 

8, 1. Hiry, the masculine word from which hirt or hurt ‘widow 1 is derived, only here. — 
M giwt , see the note on 7,6. — Swdn only here. 

Lange conjectured ° ^ for but as Scthe observes, this emendation is 

open to the objection that a stronger word than gw would be required. Sethe proposes to join 
tmnf mii, with which he compares the frequent expression ^ a to what 

precedes, and to translate ..findet Herrlichkeiten, die er nie gesehen, dastehend und durch 

ihre Last erdriickend“. This does in fact seem to he the only way of dealing with the text in 
its present state, but I am unable to convince myselF that this is what the scribe meant; the sen¬ 
tence seems intolerably long and heavy. 

Text, Translation anti Cotncneniary, 


i ia\\ oi i t 

8 ,1-8,2. 


11 t r 

(*- 2 ) iMtiil' 

& (3 


Behold, he who possessed no property is [iiotv) a man of wealth. The prince praises him. 

8, i. Nb h'w, see the note on 2,5. — The second clause obviously means that princes 
now have to adopt an attitude of deference towards men who once were poverty-stricken. 

8 , 2 . 

Cl _ 

****** r \i 1 

qi 1 1 £1 iy* es w 

Ms. p 

Behold , the poor of the land have become rich, and (the possessor of) property has become 
one who has nothing. 

8, 2. Hwd ‘rich 1 is not a rare word, e. g. Hat Nub Graffiti 8, 10; Eloquent Peasant B 1, 89; 
still more frequent is the causative sjrwd ‘to enrich’ Rifeh 7, 22; Urkunden IV 60. 163. The sign 0 
is substituted by the scribe for the less familiar determinative which was doubtless unknown 

to him; for this sign cf. Rifeh 7,22; Mission V 8,37 ( Tomb of hi)-, the form <£ Suit I 247 is 
marked by Griffith as not dearly legible. — The restoration of nb before ihi is a necessary and 
certain conjecture. 

8,2-8, 3 . 

Behold^ . T , . , , , * . . have become masters of butlers. He who was 
sejids another * 

^fx V“* 

a messenger [iioiv) 

8, 2. The first word is evidently incomplete; the name of some kind oT domestic servant 
is required; hrpw will clearly not suit. 

8, 3 -8, 4 . 

Behold, he who had no loaf is owner of a bairn. His magazine is provided with ike 
possessions of another. 

8, 3. P'l a kind of cake or loaf of bread; Pap, Kahun 26a, 16; Ebers 49,11; Harris 18a, 3; 
Anast. IV 14, 1. — Hnn f to provide’, cf. I 3 r. Wbrierb. 963; Harris 57,6; Amherst 2,4. 


Gardliitr, The Admonitions of an Exilian Sage. 


Behold\ he whose hair had fallen out and who was without oil is become a possessor of 
jars of sweet myrrh. 

8,4. H'?, of the falling out of hair, cf, fibers 6y } 3. -— Hbb ‘oil-jar' hitherto known only 
from Ptolemaic texts, see Br. Worierb. 1065; hbhb in the same sense Piankhi 110. — 'nfiw as an 
unguent for the hair, e* g\ Zanberspr . f Mutter u, Kind 3,5. 

(s, 5) 





u Mr. insert* w before 

Behold , j//f who had no box is possessor of a coffer . .S/f^ looked at her face in ihe 

water is possessor of a mirror. 

8,5. Ghs ‘a box’ especially for clothes; cf. Westcar 2, i; 12, 5; Anas!. I 12/2; 16,3; 
Piankhi 33. — Up, elsewhere unknown; Sethc suggests that it may be identical with the word 
pd, \pd ‘furniture’ discussed by him A. Z. 44 (1907), 134—5. 



S, 5. Left incomplete by the scribe: Setho points out that this beginning of a paragraph 
may very well be transferred to the blank space in 8, 7, where Lange had conjectured 


8, 5 -8, 7 . 

$ (S, 6) LjJ 

1 ? 


I a 1 \ 



1 I 


(s. ?) Here about ’» line left blank - 

O sswsi^ 

Behold, a man is happy when he cats his food. '■Partake of thy possessions tn joy of heart, 
turning not back | Jt is good for a man to eat his food'. The god allows it to him whom he 

praises . [ Behold , he who was ignorant of] his god {none) offers to him with the 

incense of another ; not known .. 

Text, Translation and Commentary 

8, 5, The blank space in S, 7 is doubtless due to a lacuna or illegible passage in the 
Ms, that lay before die scribe of the Leiden papyrus, or before one of his immediate predecessors. 
The question now arises as to whether this lacuna contained the introductory formula mttn or not; 

or in other words, whether we have here two sections or one. If we emend nnhi Is hm at the 

end of the gap, inserting the fragmentary words in S* 5 in accordance with Sethe's suggestion, 
from tills point onwards we get a paragraph intelligible in itself, and quite in the style of our 
papyrus. On the other hand the earlier part ending with hs*nf can hardly be quite complete; 
for the section would then be mere pointless moralizing, whereas every separate paragraph hi¬ 
therto (with the partial exception of 7, 1 after the change of introductory formula) has been de¬ 
scriptive in character, filling in some new detail in the picture of Egypt’s ruin, The first part of 
our text would be made conformable to the context if some such words as The food of every 
man is taken from him* or, 4 all men now hunger* be lost after Iisjif, We can then follow the 
train of thought: it is a good tiling for a man to eat his own food, and it is a right that the 
god concedes to those of whom he approves; now however this divinely-given privilege is 
denied to men, 

S, 6. Snm (fcir, Worterb, 124S; Suppi\ 1073) usually means To feed 1 some one with (prep, w) 
something. The sense To feed on 1 something, with the thing as object, appears to be secondary; cf. 

™ a • To " ,i ° f /w i un P ub,ished )' 

<=> * p c ]^Cults d Atonou p. 40. — Nn nk hnhn\ this construction is more usual in the 

New than in the Middle Kingdom, see Sethe, Verbum II % 563; cf. however LebensmYtde 77. — 

Sum ht-k and the following words are probably the substance of the divine decree afterwards 
alluded to. 

(8, S) 


I I 

I I Cl 

a Ms, ^_|| b Ms. 

Behold , noble ladies, great ladies , mistresses of goodly things give llieir children for beds Q). 

S, S. Sethe conjectures that rdil n here means ‘to exchange for’; and though this con¬ 
struction seems hard it must be admitted that the use of as equivalent to the later r db$ 

cTfie’ may be defended by such passages as Ur k under IV iiS - JU a ^ ^ ~ JL ~ {= jj 

^|j; cf Rekhmere 8,24. — Hnkyl ‘bed’ is also elsewhere determined by CD cf. 4,9; 9, i; 
MilUngen 1,12. 

8 ,8-8, 9 . 

Mif ^iSIllSilMi! $mik^ 

.) ? i 1 y k k <« cs ■ 1 

A/^VW 0 ^ 

o ^ 

^ IWMM j , 

Behold , a man [who .. obtains) a noble lady as tmfe\ her father 

protects him. He who has not (.> slay him. 

Gardiner, Tlie Admonitions of an ICpypliao Sage 

S, 9. The probable sense is: lie who lias acquired riches, obtains a wife of noble birth and is 
protected by his father-in-law. The man who has no means is not protected, but killed. Unless 
some words have fallen out after indy the construction is quite abnormally elliptical: we require 
something' like hvty [nf s rmt nb(\ hr sm'-m-f. 

8,9 8,10. 

iiinia ^ 


Behold , the children of courtiers are . [Rich men hand over the] ea/vesQ}) 

of their eowRf) to plunderers. 

S, 9. The incomplete word might be emended to (j ? 'criminals' (Seihe) or 

( cf - 3 -- 0 - 

8, 10. Hta\ the reading of the Ms., must be corrected to or to j[ — The 

sign read {5 is exceptionally large, and indistinctly made; possibly it should be read iS, In this 
case we might restore: ‘[the herdsmen (or ‘overseers’) of] cattle [deliver over] the best of their 
cows(r) to plunderers’. — For hzkyw, see the note on 2, 9. 


I i I I W*W ftWMA 

Z A * 


8 , 10 - 8 , 11 . 

illllfkl < s - ■ ■> 

Behold, butchers ti'ansgressip) with the cattle of the poor. . 


8, 10. Sinyw below 8,12; 9,1, is evidently a word for ‘butcher’ ‘slaughterer’; the render¬ 
ing ‘kings’ is quite impossible in 9, 1, where the determinative ^ is significant. It is curious 
that the word should be of such rare occurrence; we might certainly have expected to find it in 
the Hood papyrus. The connection with the late verb 1 0 Br. Worterb. Sitppl. j 158 is 
extremely dubious, and the only likely example outside our papyrus is tf Orbincy j G, 7 

evenhore the 


Ol fl-l? 

7 k 

reading is slighdy doubtful, the transcription used for the Berlin Dictionary giving 1 ° =0= ° ^ 4 . — 

t iVvvW’. r~+ '* J _ ■> Jj 

K?tkn elsewhere mentis (1) l to beat 1 a person with a stick; (2) l to beat’ ‘pound up ! in the medical 
literature; (3) 'beaten' ‘flattened' of bronze. The construction with m occurs only here and in 9, 12.J 
It docs not appear likely that the verb is here used merely as a rarer circumlocution for l to kill’; 
it is perhaps preferable to assign to it a metaphorical sense, as in the Decree of Horanheb 26, 

where it seems to be used of official abuses: ‘they went from house to house ^ ^ 

beatin g e. coercing people) and.without leaving hides . 


9 ^'P i n ^ here nothing more than a fpiiliy writing of thy preposition tp m before*. 

Tex:, Translation and Commentary. 



q 't_ 0 1 




Behold^ he who never slaughtered for himself now slaughters dulls , Me who knew not 

* sees * * *.. all . 

s ' n - ts. D 'k shouid probably be read | Q 1 , the signs £7*^^ being due to the 

misunderstanding of the determinative see the note on ?nrrt , above 6,11. 

8 , 12 . 

k-S.1 0 Q/Utf* A * xH 

u 0 I J J T JWAV I 1 I I I I *ww J J 

t &_D @ t 

7L-il Q 

Behold^ butchers transgress {}) with geese. They are given (to) the gods instead of oxen ♦ 

S, 12, For and knkn^ see the notes on 8, 10. — The preposition n must dearly be 
restored before nirw t 

n o 


ii i mliillalil <s - I3) T® 

8,12—B, 13. 

*WWS (2 ^ ^ I 

□ fie. 


about five 


squares left uohlled ^ 

Behold , female slaves ... offer geese (F). Noble ladies 

S, 13. In place of Splizu we ought doubtless to read 5 pdiv\ this conjecture receives some 
support from the fact that such words as wwi^-oxen, ftc'i-bulls and r3- -geese occur in the pre¬ 
ceding lines. 


^r~i§ILLA?P°M kT.?iii!lill! 

widWr D J> 

a I’or the traces in the Ms., see plate S, uotc jt. 

Behold\ nobles ladies flee. The over$eers{J) .♦ * * Their [children}) are cast denim 

through fear of death. 

S, 14. THh 1 to cast down’ tiloot, e. g\ PyramidicxtsV 6031 Petrie, Koftos 8,6; Eloquent 
Peasant B /, 197. ^ ® (Br. Worierb. 505) is merely the New Egyptian writing of this word, 

— M snd n } cf n snd n 16, 1; [m}\ snd u 9, 12, 

G a 1 d i u c r, Q 


(Zar'lmcr, I hir Atlmonilinm i>l .ill Si£c. 


a o 

\ rJ.S. 

I <ZZ> @ I I I A I IT | I I 




Behold the chiefs of the land flee. There is no . for them because of want 

S, 14. 'This section being clearly parallel to the last, nut a should probably be restored at 

JT 7 

the beginning. — Nl is obviously wrong; read y (?). — The meaning of hnt here is obscure. — 
J\f giwt, see 7,6 note. — If mltn be restored at the end of the line, only 2—2 l ; squares remain 
for the sentence beginning with ub l/s ( ; ). 



0 w 

l <S"C I I I 


| Beho/ci\ (hose who possessed beds (now lie) on the ground. He who passed the night in 
soitalorif) is (now) one who prepares (?) for himself a waterskinQ). 

8, 14. As was [jointed out In the notes to the last paragraph, the restoration of mitn leaves 
but little place for the preceding sentence. 

9, 1. For htk see the note on 3,4; the meaning of the word and its construction here 

are equally obscure. — For sce on M- -• — ' s here written as though the word 

for waterskin were meant; it should possibly be identified with the word discussed on 4, io. — 
The second clause here is clearly antithetical to the first; but its exact meaning is uncertain. 


^ M?. 

Behold noble ladies go hungry, the butchers are sated with' wheel was prepared for than. 
9, 1, For K'i r sce the note on 7, j, and for sing that On 8, 10. 

9, 2. frt nsn either (1) 'that which was made for them’, i. c. that which formerly was pre¬ 
pared for the ladies who now are famished; or (2)'what they have done' i. e. the animals which 
they, the butchers, have slaughtered. The former alternative is preferred by Lange and myself, 

but is rejected by Sethe on the ground that would be required. 

9, 2. 

Behold , no offices arc in their (right) place. like a frightened herd without a herdsman. 

Text, '['ran slat ion and Commentary. 

g, 2. For 'air compare the examples collected by Loret in Rec. de Trav, iS, 205 foil.; and 
see too Griffith, Hieroglyphs p. 41. The singular suffix of minwf (for this word cf. A, Z. 42 


U90SI. * * 9) proves that \dr is a singular noun with collective meaning. — 7 'nbh, cf. Q 

thou art a balance; swerve not’ Eloquent Peasant B /, )6i (similarly 

■ « wo “. * * 

too ibid. 97); of the Hittite chief ^* ~ J °0 J| ^ ‘his *" acc * s av e*'tcd and 

shrinking, his heart is faint* Champ., Mon. I 22 = L. /?. Ill i 61 1 = i^,, /. H. 240,39* = ibid. 2 16, 33; 
in a pessimistic context ° ‘the facefi 1 ) shrinks back(?)' Brit. Mas. 5645 recto 12 2 ; and spelt 

° J A. ' n ^ 1G °k scurc P assa £ e Naville, Goshen 6, 3. Lastly, in the /b/. Koller 5, 3 
stands in parallelism to snd and should obviously be corrected to tnbh. To judge from the 
determinative in the Eloquent Peasant passages, the original meaning may have been 'to swerve, 
shrink, recoil* (cf. A.) like a gazelle. The determinative 4 > here * s doubtless a corruption of .A — 
The words mi idr nn mhiwsn reappear in the Coronation stele from Gebel Barkal, Urkmtden III 87; 
the captains say to their troops; ‘Come, let us crown a lord for us, (who are) like a herd that 
has no herdsman*. This may be a quotation from the Admonitions. 


^-?rrr°" e 

I I I 





JL. ' 




Behold , cattle arc left to stray, and there is none to gather them together . Each man 
fetches for himself those that arc branded with Ins name. 

9,2. Cf. Israel side 24 (] ^ ®f, Y. ““HI °i l \^kl ^ M $3 T ' ’ S P‘'« el - 
berg appositely quotes the present passage in commenting on this sentence, but wrongly proposes 
there to emend ^ {A- Z. 34 [1896], 22). * n Sinn he B 1 iS (where we 

should not read hxead) is in all probability the same word. — Nxvy, cf. below 12, 1; the verb is 
elsewhere used of assembling people, see my Inscription of Mes , p. 19, note 48. 

9, 3. For ib ‘to brand* cattle, see Brugsch, A. Z. 14 (1S76), 35—38; Iloremheb decree 26. 




Behold , a man is slain beside his brother. lie .. to save his {(mm) limbs. 

9,3. In the second half of the section CD A (] ^ € is clearly corrupt. We 

might expect; ‘he abandons him and hastens away to save his own skin*. — Mikt kiw-f 
cf, below 14, 12. 

1) With the ilelcTminj\liv’e * 2) Sec ihe Appendix. 


Cnrdiner, The A<!niofiiitun& of an Kgyplian ba^c. 



te\ Ck^kfl 

a Ms. 

b Mi. inserts m tfter n&. 

Behold , he who had no yoke of oxen is (now) possessor of a herd. He who could find 

for himself no oxen to plough with is (now) possessor of cattle. 

9, 4. With the help of the two simple emendations adopted in our text, the passage be¬ 

comes perfectly clear. — Idr , see 9, 2 note. — Ski possibly Pap. med. Berlin S, 5, but nowhere else. 




f 1 r^s 

w ^ 


in" . 

1 o \ 111 

9, 4—9 t 5. 

to, 5)1 

1 I I 


A_Q L J jo 


Behold\ he who had no grain is (now) the possessor of granaries. He who had to fetch 
for himsclj tjbt-corn (now) sends it forth . 


9,5. In and dit pr seem here to mean ‘to fetch’ and ‘send out’ from the granary re¬ 
spectively. — Tilt is a rare word for some kind of com: cf. A r j 

fi q ..... ' ~ 

’■* "'as persistent in giving grain to the Thebans' Rec.dc Trav. 16,59 (collated by Sethe); 

de Rouge, Edfou : r, rj, Brugsch is clearly wrong in regarding tlbi 

as a measure of corn (Worterb. Supply 140a); the Edfou example speaks decisively against 
this view. 


Q 1 i 1 



□ ex; 

Behold\ he who had no dependents (?) is nozv a lord of serfs ♦ He who was a notable'* does 
commission(s) himself\ 

9,5- Sihw- The meaning ‘neighbours 1 (Br. Wdrferb . 1276; SnppL 1094) does not seem 
at all satisfactory here, and one is tempted to connect the word, not with sH/ ‘to draw close' 
1 approach', but with sSh 'to present' ‘reward'; the determinative _/! is quite negligeable in a Ms. 
of this kind, and sih is used of‘presenting' a man with slaves (Urkunden IV 5S). It must be ad¬ 
mitted however that the meaning ‘neighbours 1 is certain in at least one passage \ Harris 500 
recto 2 j i o), where the love-sick swain is visited by his ‘neighbours’. la the obscure context 
Prissc 14, i, sihw seems to be parallel to tkn imk\ so that there too ‘neighbours’ is the probable 
meaning. On the other hand Pa fieri 6 seems to make in favour of the rendering ‘dependent’; 

a number of ‘attendants' j carrying sandals etc* are followed by a mail who brings a couple 

of bags and Is called ^ ww * jJn ^ ^ ‘his helmed dependent (:)\ St/uo-t- 'neighbours' 

Text, Trmslatiun anti Comincnliry, 


Sail . I 6, 8 — Anas/. V 1 5, S is possibly a different word. — After urn m a word has been left 
out. The conjecture sr (often above translated 'prince'; neither this rendering’ not yet ‘official’ 
covers the whole connotation of the word) is supported by the fact that the sr is often described 
as despatching messengers; cf. Prissc 8, 1 1 —13; Rekhmcrc a, 10 foil. 

a d Q X 

I I I \vwia ^ r , u . > ill 5T 

9 ? 5 — 9 , 6 . 

P (9,6) MM 

Q @ 

(0 f.'AWi 

■111 o 



Behold , ihe powerful men of (he land , ihe condition of /he people is not reported (to them ??). 
All is mini 

9, 5. The expression knw mo 13 is curious: for hiw cf. 2, 7. 

9, 6. The facsimile shows traces, now quite illegible, that seem to point to the reading 
(5 But as Sethe points out, the omission of n-sn is intolerable, and we 



ought to emend w.w || 

j 1 or 

d (2 

ft WAM 

j I . — Lange suggests that shrw n rhyt 

should be taken with the following words; the objection to this is that w 3 r 3 kw occurs above 
in 3,13 impersonally, and it is hardl) r possible to understand it differently here. 


! . 1 * J 

a Ms. b SK 2^ 

ill III 

Behold , no craftsmen work. The enemies of the laud have spot ftit) Us crafts Q) 

9,6. Sfwi, see 7,2 note; in that passage ‘to impoverish’ someone ‘of {preposition >«); 
here apparently ‘to make poor’ 1 e. ‘spoil’. The construction could be made like that of 7, 2 
by emending »t before hnnvt-f and understanding i 3 as the object oi the verb; but it is better 
to construe hfliw (3 together as l the enemies of the land’; cf. 7, 1. 

9 , 6 . 

9 , 7 — 9 , 8 . 

[Behold, he who guthered in rj the homest (no?o) knows nothing thereof. He who never 

ploughed l for himself \ .[ The reaping ?] takes place, bul is not reported. 

The scribe |.\v'A in his offieef), but\ his hands are [idle r] within it. 


Gardiner. The Admonition* of an ptiaa’i ba^e. 

9. 7. This section refers to the decay of agriculture and to the laxity of government 
officials in collecting the tax on corn. — After [mitn\ Lange conjectures die who gathered in'; 

this would give a good parallel to ski in the second sentence, but ^T)^' most usual verb 

in this connection, is too small for the lacuna and does not suit the signs still preserved 

Perhaps we should read [ (|p,^j Jjf/jj ‘behold, he who registered’; for sphr cf. Sail. 1 6, 2; 

Pap. Bologna toS6, 24; Pap. Leiden 370 recto S. — If )nt be correct, it must be understood 
partitively: ‘lie knows nothing of it’. — Tor the form of the sentence beginning with tm , 
see on 7, 9. 

9 , 8 - 9 , 11 . 

■tA. x p ^ 

M aliout l.t losi || 



vS (9, 9) lllll^lIpP 

{-\ A wv/' 

^ TfAT^jiifiSrT.tS'k^rrj I— 

I H 


ns above 6 t 3 . 

Destroyed is (?). his . in that time. [Every'-:) mau looks 

upon .[aj] his adversary if). The infirm man brings coolness \to that 

which is hot\ . fear . Poor men . 

.. The land is not light because of it. 

9, 8. The long series of sections introduced by mitn here gives place to a few para¬ 
graphs of which each begins with the word hd (9,8; 9,11; [9,14?]; 10,2). These paragraphs arc 
to be distinguished from the later series in 10,6 foil., where the reiterated formula is not the 
isolated word hd but the sentence hike hfiUv uw font’. There, as 1 hope to be able to show. 

hdw is to be understood as an imperative, and in io, 6 we pass from the descriptive to the ad¬ 

monitory part of the composition, the paragraph ushered in by rtuy if Ti-mhw 10,3—6 serving 
as a very suitable transition. In the sections 9,8—10,3 there is no internal evidence for supposing 
that the admonitions have already begun. On the contrary, the sentence niii si etc. 9,S—9,9 
is apparently analogous, both in form and in substance, to mii si si-f m hnoy-f in 1,5. The 

text from 9,11 to 10,2 is sadly mutilated, but seems to deal successively with several topics 

already familiar to us. In 10,2 | ’ ts P^ ira * determinative, cannot be construed 

as an imperative; not only there but also in 9.8 and 9, m it should be understood in the same 
manner as in 3, S and 3,11'. In other words, the series of paragraphs from 9, S to 10,3 is to 
be regarded as a continuation of the pessimistic descriptions which Ipuwer afterwards uses as the 
text for his exhortations. 

9,9. Fn is a rare word that seems to express the opposite of rwd ‘to be strong’ ‘to 
iloitrish’; cf. Eloquent Peasant R 115; ibid. B /,23 a. Benihasan H 6 (/)*; ‘he drives away (siwif) 

) Sec loo tlio nolc on jo, 2 . 

2 ) This example 1 owe to the kindness of fir. Yo£tlvni£. 

Text, Traiislulicju and t'uimimnUry* 


thirst from thee. 

£i|kl and so thou art strong, thou art not 

iWiAVh jt ^ ^ 

■ v " w ' ‘their hearts are 

n rt 1 

weak thereby (?)’ Mission V, Tomb of Ncfcrhotep, plate 3'; y|l ( ( ( 

faint in their bodies' Stele 0/ Tutankhamen 9 — Rcc. de Trav. 29, 164; a man calls himself 
j—] / *^ v ' ‘the shelter of the infirm’ 2 , Urkundcit I\ r 972'. — 'I'be emendation kbkw 

\hr tiw\ is suggested by 11,13 below, 




^ 9 — I0 squares ]o*t ^ | r r I 1 




1 I i 1 

^ X 


t * T ~*1 fj -Cj iO 

„ Jl A 9(f ^ II about 5 squares lost ^ [J k-A 

( 9 > 13 ) I 

(9. ■ 4) |,— 6 

( 9 - [ 0) I, a b aol 6 

* p , !°9 

^ about 9 squirts lo&l gjyj {p | 

squares lost f| 




H about 6 squares lost ^ L*]oo 

2=) «tl«- 



^ 0 

2 L^ n ^m» 

^k^KF^NkS?"" Qk^ 

la ( IO > : ) 



a Suggested by the facsimile. 

c Ms. Q. 

b The Ms, icarliuf; might be either Q or 

Destroyed (?) are . their food (A taken envoy *j from them. 

..|/jSn?tfjA 4 ] fear of the ie}~ror he inspires (j). 77 /f poor man begs . 

..Z/i*? messenger , without .. time. He is seised\ laden with his pos¬ 
sessions', taken away ... .. nun pass by his door .. 

chambers with hawksp) . morn ip). Is the poor man vigilant r The day dawns upon 

him , without his dreading it. Men flee . Ten is Q) are what 

they make like the dwellers of the hills. 

9,11 — to,2. It is quite passible that hd may have occurred once or twice in the lost 
portions of this passage, and that it ought in consequence to be divided up into several para¬ 
graphs. The subject of 9,11 —12 seems to have been the deprivations of the poor, that of 
9,12—13 the robbery of messengers. It is wholly obscure what meaning is to be attached to 
the greater part of 9, 14. At the end of that line and in 10, 1, it seems to be said that by 
vigilance in the nightime the poor man may assure his own safety. What then follows is quite 
untranslateable, Lastly — if the reading Unw be correct — the Egyptians are described as 
reduced to making tents for themselves, like the barbarians of the deserts. 

I0 t 1. For the determinative of hryt see on itpw 1,2. — The obscure sentence beginning 
with shs-tw, if translated literally, seems to give the following meaningless phrases: 'men run on 
foreheads, strained through the tf'7p’/-cloth of Tayt in the midst of the house(??)‘. For shnk ‘to 
strain' a liquid through (w) a doth, see the note, in the Appendix, on shjk, Brit. Alas. 5645 recto 3. 

io,2. Read 


[) These example^ 1 awe llie kindness rcf Dr, Vogelsang. 

2 ) Hitherto wrongly divided nht n ffn. 


(lardiHer, The Admonitions of *n 


10 , 2 - 10 , 3 . 

OT7, k«*7. l 2- (-OPTTPT spV.-fi? 


—1_ o 


^ o 

^ I o 

/VWWi f l I 


\\r i 

Destroyed is the performance of that for which they arc sent by servants in the missions 
oj their lords, without their being afraid of them. Behold they arc five men. They say , they 
jrrty(P): go ye upon the road which ye knmv of\ we arc come. 

10,2. The first sentence is exceedingly clumsy, but, with the slight correction 
grammatical!)’ defensible. For hd with an infinitive as its subject cf. Eloquent Peasant B 
'—pf ^ JI ^ 'F , It should be observed that f~[] j| _A ^ cannot be read hlbtw, 
^ for not being lound in hieratic before the 21st. or 22 nd. dynasty. — The latter part of 
the paragraph is obscure, but the meaning must be that servants now give orders to their masters. 

— Si 5 recalls the word — in the title — Jhnihasan 1 8,19, where it 

has been translated *a party of five servants’. However it is to be noted that in the 

Old Kingdom (e, g. Davies, Piahhetep (I 7) is applied to women only, and it is uncertain how 
much importance should be attached to the determinative in the Benihasan title. 

IQ, 3. 1 he repetition of ddsn may be due to dittography. 

'■ 2 °' IT 

10,3-10, 6. 

a Ms. only 

Lower Egypt weeps . The storehouse of the king is the common property of everyone ^ and 
the entire palace is without its rrre tines. To it belong {by right) wheat and bar icy, geese and 
fish. To it belong white cloth and fine linen , bronze and 01L To it belong carpet and mat 

. palanquin and all goodly produce. . If it had not been . 

in the palace ,. would not be empty, 

10,3. IITu hihv-m , see 6,9 note; perhaps m should be restored before this expression, 
as in 6, 9. 

Text* Transition and fum men l:\ry. 


10.4. In s is doubtless a corruption of in. — The proper writing of ‘without' is 

of^-^ ( c - S- Sinu he B 205}, but the writing m hint is frequent in the N. K. (e. g. Pap. 
Turin 59,3) and occurs also quite early (e. g. Stnnhe B 44 = ibid. R 68). — A J tf, emphatic, ‘to 
the palace belongs (by right).for this usage cf. A. Z. 34 {1896), 50. — Hdt and phi to¬ 

gether, Ur k unden IV 207; 742. 

10.5. Pss(l) and kn occur together Pap. Kahitn 30,44—5; for the meaning of these 
words see Griffith’s additional note (p. 105) on the passage quoted. — lyf hiv is quite obscure. — 
Ir it’d/ is the New Egyptian spelling (cf. Toth. cd. Nav. 89, 3; Pap . Turin 122, i) of the old 

expression for which see Sethc, Vcrbnm II g 148b. — Sk, with ^ as determinative, 

is unknown, and it is not clear what sense should be given to it. 

10 , 6 — 10 , 7 . 

ipj-sir, mntim ^ 4 

- JL *n*® ! K -P 

WJWi I f I I fWWV 



a Ms 

Destroy the enemies of the noble Residence, splendid of courtiers . 

.... The Overseer of the tenon walked abroad , without an escort [r). 

in it like 

10,6. From 10,6 to 10,11 tve find a number of short sections beginning with the words 
hdw hfliw >nv Unw {pf ) spsi. Unfortunately not one of these sections has been preserved com¬ 
plete, and in most of them only a few words remain. So far as can be seen, the introductory 
formula was followed by epithets agreeing with ituw . which were succeeded in their turn by short 
circumstantial clauses descriptive of the orderliness and magnificence of the royal Residence, as it 
was in times of peace and prosperity. It seems likely that the essentially descriptive part of our book 
— that in which the ruin of the land was depicted — ended in 10,6, the last paragraph 10,3 
—10,6, which paints the desolate condition of the king's palace, forming a very appropriate 
transition to a series of admonitions or commands to destroy the enemies of the royal Residence. 
On this view hdw is a plural imperative, parallel to shtw in 10,12 and the following lines. It is 
obvious that wc cannot here translate ‘destroyed are the enemies of the noble Residence’ giving 
hd the sense assigned to it in 9,S, for one of the main points of the descriptive passages has 
been that Egypt owes its misfortunes to the machinations of the ‘enemies of the land’ (see 
especially 7,119,6); nor is there any good ground for such a translation as ‘harmful are’ or 
‘woe unto’ the enemies of the Residence. In the only two instances where the first word of the 
introductory formula is completely preserved the plural strokes are found, and as it stands 

l^r, can be explained grammatically only as a plural imperative. It may be objected that 
hd is but rarely employed of the ‘destruction’ of people; the only known instances seems to be 
the name of the gate ^ ^ ^ in Toib. cd. Nav. 145 B {Pg)\ 146,9 

[Aa has as variant *^-). However the rarity of hd in this sense may be due to the very strong 
meaning of that word, which signifies rather ‘to efface' ‘to obliterate' than merely ‘to destroy’. — 


(rnrcliiicr, The Admonitions of m \ K^yptiau 

in hinv pf Sflsi jo, S. io. 11 seems to indicate that the glory of the Residence described by 

the following epithets is a tiling of the past, (for a similar use see 6, j j above and nfi in 5, 12), 

and the use of the reproving particle ms in 10,7. 1 I (?) may hint at the same fact. 

10,7. S'Si is perhaps the official whose title often occurs in the N. K., and who derives 

his name from the rare verb s<sl ‘to repress’ Harris 28,6; 57, 13; 58,6; Mar. Ahyd. 11 55,34. 

10 . 7 - 10 , 8 . 

<«>.*> PMsMs-,..... u.| 

[Destroy the enemies of the noble Residence], splendid . .. 

10 .8- 10, 9 . 

[| x It 1 i*S" Sv ! I jtffl t I U "t i »'<out 1 vju.irt 1 : lost % V 1 Y% '/i line 


l«’l 4-5 s^Linrcsi tost ^ 

[Destroy the enemies of \ that {formerly) noble Rcsidenee , manifold of laws ........... 

to, S—10,9. Not improbably to be divided into two paragraphs. 

10 . 9 - 10 , 10 . 

io )^LflPr 

[Destroy the enemies of\ that {formerly) noble [ Residence) . 

10,10 10 , 11 . 

° pan '-''ip „, , ,1 (10,11) 

Lj-j X (1 t t <=L Jv 1 I © *C=~. IJB I =r“=J ^ “tout 7 squares lost gj ^ ’ 1 [ 7 j £s 4— 5 


squares lost 

Destroy the enemies of that {formerly) [noble] Residence . No one 

could stand .. 

io, it. Ferhaps some phrase like ^ fO @ |i cf. Sin a he /> 56; 

Piankhi 95, both limes in reference to the king, 

10 , 11 — 10 , 12 . 

squares lost § C 10 ’ ’ 2 ) | 

■a Ms. ° b Ms. Q 

[Destroy the enemies of\ that [formcr/y) y/orious [Rcsidenee}, abundant in off ices (?). 

j is unknown; doubtless ^ 3 C 3 j 'offices’ should he read. 

TnM t 'I'liLnslaliun and Omimciitiiry. 

7 5 



10,12 10,13. 

I* «* Ofle.O « - ™ 

111 in 

'l ?m 


ftril-,—i <■* -3) k^’CTI 

5—6 s(|uarcii lust 

!flil ,a iyi i r 





1 1 1 ^ e A\ 

- ^ 

X I 

.1 Ms. 

b Ms. 

Remember to immersef) . him who is m pain (?) when (?) he is 

ill in his limbs ... his god. He .• - 

His children . 

10.12. The reiterated command to destroy the enemies of the royal Residence is here 

succeeded by a number of solemn exhortations to pious conduct and to the observance ol reli¬ 
gious duties. These exhortations are introduced by the plural imperative iollowed by 

infinitives; the construction is a natural one, but does not seem to have been noted in other texts. 

There is no reasonable ground for doubting that shiw is an imperative, especially as the suffix 
of the 2nd. person plural occurs below in 11,6,7, 

^ Ij WAVl means Uo immerse* or 4 dip 1 something in a liquid, or L to irrigate or ‘soak 

© -su jwwsn JJ 

land. The former sense is common in the medical literature, and the context here suggests that 
the sentence referred to some act of healing sick persons. — © ^ ^° r w ^' c ^ t * ie 

singular must be read, if hnv-f be correct, seems to be the participle of a verb wlid\ for this 
word see the note on Brit. Mns. 5645 recto in the Appendix to this book. 

10.13. The meaning is wholly obscure. — For a below 13,4. 

10 , 13 - 11 , 1 . 



□ © 

o nfl«:. 

E 1 n nzm* 

, MrAM 
, 'WWA 


JL Ms. 

r 1 

Remember lo .; to fumigate with incense^ and to offer water in a jar 

in the early morning. 

1 r, t. which might equally well be read ^ here hardly to be translated 

‘granary 1 , that word being out of place in the present context, which dearly deals with religious 
rites. — M nkpu\ cf. Toth. cd. Nav. 178,22; Mar. Dead. Ill 33; IV 74,21. 

11 , 1 - 11 , 2 . 

rcksi jv 


^ ; 1 

a Ms. O 

10 ' 

7 6<lim!r h Thu AilmimLiioii'h of :in ]\^y|jti:LTi 

Remember to bring) fat r ogees e, torpu and set-geesc\ and to offer offerings to the gods. 

11,1. An infinitive lias obvionsl/ been omitted after shH r. 

i i^2 + St, cf. often in tlie Old Kingdom; fl^^ v Zauberspr. f Mutter u. Kind 4, 1. 

l □□ 


r LL11JJ - L i 1 O 

Oj I I I 

Hf 2. 

U J1£ 



Remember to chew natron, and to prepare white bread . (So should) a man ( do :) on the 
day of moistening the head. 

11,2. Purificatory rites are not to be forgotten. — Ws<- hmtn , cf To/ 0 , cd. iVav. 172, [, 

The cleansing properties of natron are frequently mentioned; in Pap. Turin 58,10 rD'^ :> 0j'™ v 

H < 5t=f A 'ffZ ? fi i is used of the period of purification which priests had to undergo. — 
I <=> 1 WWW Hi* X I www S ill 

hvk ip , only here. 

11 , 3 - 11 , 4 . 


0 ^ 
s e t 1 ( 


-“Jt° Cjzzs 


(11.4) 5 ! 


' :=z>, ni'® 

1 . - LJI IIII 


b Wrongfully Iran fieri lie il as 

on ill n plnl(i T 

Remember to erect flagstaffs, and to carve ste/ac: the priest purifying the temples, and the 
god's house being plastered [white) like mUk\ [remember) to make fragrant the perfume of the 
horizon t and to perpetuate bread-offerings. 

11,3. s ^ ou ^ probably be corrected to snyt\ cf. P ^ | J] Q Urknnden IV 56. 

—- Twrl l to cleanse 1 a palace, Urknnden IV 7 975; sacred places Mar. Demi. HI 25; Dijmichen, 
Bangeschiehie 47; in giving the verb the determinative ^ , the scribe doubtless thought of 
j" 1 reed on which see Erman, Lcbcnsnmde 92 note. — Shth(t) cf. ‘I built their temples, 

- ^ ie ' r sta ’ r ' cases were plastered(r)’ Cairo stele M. /\. 20512. 

To judge from the determinative here, and the comparison with ‘milk’, the verb may well 
mean ‘to cover with plaster’ and be a causative derived from the noun a 

( ( (for deriva¬ 
tives of the kind see Sethe, Verbitm I ^ 352). Kill is possibly 'Ntle-mud' (Sethe); the paint¬ 
ings in Egyptian tombs are made on a surface of Nile-mud covered with a coating of whitewash. 

So too Breasted ( Proc, S. B. A. 22,go) understands the passage ^ ^^ 1 ■ 

g^(|| | Urknnden IV 5;. The word has probably nothing to do with 

|l a| gA in Harris 15b. 10 etc., (always with ‘wood’). 

11,4. Srwd piwi. cf. Pap. Kahun 2, 1; Sint I 269; Cairo side M. R. 20539, and so 
often later. 

Tf'in&lAliuii ami (.'omniL-ntriry. 


p IVa 

11 , 4 — 11 , 6 . 


nr f O O—O 


I JWvWt --- Jr-^ 

I _W —J 



2 £JPf>j> 

‘O | 

P 0 

^ e JS* 


PPS^iM IlilraT? 

• I 03 , 


* oo! — 6 ) Illlf in o 

Remember to observe regulations , rtW /fl adjust dates . {Remember) to remove him who 
enters upon the priestly office in impurity of body{ r). Thai is to perform it wrongfully. That 
is corruption of heart {}) .. , , . rtfay .... eternity , months .^«irf(?) ....... 

11.4. Here the observance of religious times and seasons is enjoined, and the due per¬ 
formance of the religious duties connected therewith. 

Ndr tp-rd, cf. Sethe, Urkundcn IV 384; 489. — Sbsb occurs >n several obscure passages 
(e. g. Rekhvtere 7,9); here it has clearly some such sense as the Coptic up fie mature, — Sw in 
the old language is not simply ‘days’ but ‘days of the month’ ‘dates'; doubtless the reference is 
to the astronomically fixed festivals, the ® ^ |Tl P. 1 1 Urkunden IV 7 112, and to 
the lunar months used in the temples. 

11.5. WPt ‘priestly service’ and hsi of bodily impurity seem to be elsewhere unknown. 
In Pap. Turin 58,9 foil, a rwS priest is accused of infringing the rules as to purification. This 
sentence suits the foregoing context, as the four classes of priests served in monthly relays 

(cf. Otto, Printer and Tempel I, \). 23, note 4). — In si probably refers to wbt. — 

d/ nf see the note on 5,12. — Sszvn ib, cf, 12,7 and consult the note on 5,2. 

11 , 6 . 


Remember to slaughter oxen ... 

11 ,6—11,10. 

i I H I \ 

you , 

I c/ Q ( 

line lost IOqx! 


r I \ 



i V> of 

,www ~~~ on(]r 

vl 1 a 


l 1 ^ 

1 o 0 


* l “o°^iBc.,.o)i^.j 

q! 7, of line lost^ 


q □ l)i 1 

Remember to go fort h{J) .* * . , „ who calls to you , {Remember) to offer geese 

upon the fire .* *.* + . , , , the bank of the river t , ..* ■ *.* ■ * 

linen . . . . .. \Rcmember\\ to give . $ - - - ^ pacify you{f) .... 

ii,6—i l, 1 o + After another injunction in which there is a reference to burnt sacrifice 
(see JL Z 43(19061, 10 top), the text becomes too fragmentary to be understood. It is possible 
that sentences introduced bv shift* continued down as tar as ij*jo or even further 

(iinlintr h Hiu *\i] munitions of am h^y^Lkii b.itfi:. 

7 » 

(i i, u) I 

^ S-C b<|uarcs 

11,11-12, 6. 

JM 1 »-.- 1 1 Z 



4 WNV | ] | ^ S — S^]Uim lost §£ 

?fifl—iSSSi ^rrd e ?J^P M ' '$ 

3 Vt squires left Uiiftlkd | 

? k 



<■■•■> KarnLL^-j'S! zi^k 



—' t—> 

»<=> * 7*1 



© G 

(? j^ 1 ® D 

i i i ^ Z i 11 ^ d 

'-Zts^ <■’■*> ffi-?QT fk“Jk“P 



wi ; 

Pf^H 1 ) 

‘'^l^T^ZP.T, OJiOPx-P -fkS?,*-.8« 



n"yT (is, 5) <vw«^3,@ 

pf 7 r ()^ e ,L 

ftW-.V. v^ . w*w 
ft-WvV. ,p, *> o 

V J >. - 
I^K q (3 I q I 



w ^ i A 

I cm ; 

©Is <£^0*0 

o I _ErCs mww Q 

ft '■Aw,'' ft 

-^ Wv’AV, | _ J _ r M 

XN l^fl^G (| —j^rTU 1 -. 6) 

ww. , 
£1 (2 . 



u Ms. 

. lack of people >*.**.*,. *. . *.AV; . * * . 

. the Wes/ lo dimmish (?).^ /A* |^A:]. Behold ye, where¬ 
fore does he \scek) to [fashion mankind : ],.. . . without distinguishing /he timid man from him 

whose nature is violent. lie bringdhf) coolness upon that which is hoi. It is said: he is the 
herdsman of mankind, 1V0 evil is in his heart. When his herds are few, he passes the day to 
gather them together , their hearts being on fireQ). Won/d that he had perceived their nature in 
the first generation (of men); then he would have repressed evils , he would have stretched forth 
(his) arm against it } he would have destroyed their seed(: r) and their inheritance. Men desired to 
give birth f). Sadness grew up(J)\ needy peopled:) on every side. Thus it was(y), and it passes 
not away (?), so tong the gods in the midst thereof endnref). Seed shaft come forthf) from 
the women of the people ; nonelf) is found on the way (?). A fighter (?) goes forth , that he':) may 
destroy the wrongs that (?) they have brought about* There is no pi toff in (heir moment * Where 
is hef today ? Is he sleeping' Behold\ his might is not seen. 

i, 11—12,6. A new section, wholly different in character to all that precedes, now emerges 
out of the lacunae following upon 11^6; its beginning tell certainly before 11,12 and probably 

Tcfct, Traimlaliirii ami Commentary. 


after 11,9. Here the contents an; neither descriptive nor admonitory, and the introductory for¬ 
mulae by which the text has been hitherto divided up into sections of restricted length are for 
a time abandoned. That Ipmver is still the speaker is probable from the absence of any hint to 
the contrary, and will appear increasingly likely as we advance towards the (Mid of the book. 
The audience is the same ns heretofore; cf. mitn ‘behold ye’ 11,13; 12 -5- 

Thc theory put forward by Lange with regard to this passage has been criticized at some 
length in the Introduction (p. 13—15), and though a few references to his view will be inevitable 
in commenting on the text, it seems superfluous to cover the same ground over again. It will 
suffice to remind the reader that Lange thought it possible here to discern a Messianic prophecy, 
which is thus described by him: „I)er Prophet verkiindet liier den Erretter, der das Volk wieder 
snmmeln und Hcil mid Hilfe bringen wird“. 

The crux of this obscure section is the identity of the being to whom the pronoun of 
the 3rd. person singular in 11,12—12,2 is to be referred. Since we find s-v as far back 
as ii,i2 and as there is no reasonable ground for supposing that the antecedent of this pro¬ 
noun differs from that of the pronoun in innf (11,13) ant ^ ' n subsequent verbs, it is plain that 
the antecedent in question must have been named in the context that precedes 11,12. That 
context is unfortunately too fragmentary to yield a certain solution to the problem: but wc find 
in it a mention of the sun-god Re (11,11), which may prove to be the clue that we are seeking; 
at all events it is a clue that we are bound to consider carefully. Following closely upon the 
name of Re conies the word wd ‘to command’, then after a brief interval huntl ‘the West’ and 

a little farther on a word ending with the determinative that is appended to divine names (1 1,12). 

1'hus there is here already some slight justification for supposing that the theme of the passage 
is the control exercised over mankind, cither now or once, by the god.s. In the next sentences 

11,12—a 3 the important word was doubtless [| niay possibly allude to the 

creation of men. 1 have proposed to restore and render: wherefore, doth he (i. c. Re) \seek to] 
fashion [men] without distinguishing the meek and the violent: In other words, why has Re not 
created all men good alike? If he had done so, the present evils would never have arisen. This 
however, it must be admitted, is pure conjecture. In the next sentences the text goes on to de¬ 
scribe a beneficent ruler: he bringeth (we might translate the verb brought or wilt bring , alter¬ 
natives between which we have no means of deciding) cooling upon that which is hot. It is said: 
he is the herdsman of mankind. No roil is in his heart. When his herds arc few, he passeih 
the day to gather than together, even though if) their hearts be aflame. There is no inherent reason 
why these phrases should not, as Lange imagined, have reference to a good king whose coming 
is prophesied; but they may equally well be taken as a description of Re, whom ancient legends 
regarded as the first king of Egypt, and whose reign was looked back on as upon a sort of 
Golden Age. We now reach, in t 2, 2—3, a group of sentences beginning with a regretful wish 
uttered by Ipmver: 'Would that he (that is, the ideal king just described) had perceived thar 
nature in the first generation [of men)-, then he would have repressed evils , he would have put 
forth [his) arm against it, he would have destroyed their secdQ:) and their inheritance. Unless 
the translation be at fault, only one meaning can be attached to these words: if the ideal king 
here envisaged had known, from the very beginning of tilings, how wicked human nature is, he 
would have exterminated mankind and thus have rooted up the seed from which the present 


Gardiner, 'Hit Admonitions of an Kgyptian Sage, 

chaos and abuses have sprung. It is hardly conceivable that such a thought could have been 
framed in reference to a future ruler of human or even semi-divine birth. How could such a 
ruler, whose advent c.v hypot lies i is a thing of the future, be imagined as capable of having 
discerned, in the far distant past, the frailties of mortal men? And what means could he have 
employed to annihilate the human race: In other words, if the Messianic hypothesis be right, my 
conception of the meaning of fpmvcr’s wish must be utterly wrong. The passage becomes both 
intelligible and rational if we accept the view that it refers to Re. Nor is that all; in this case 
it will be seen to accord well with the famous story according to which Re, having become 
aware of tbe plots which men made against him, conceived the plan of destroying them, but 
relented at the last moment and forbade the god den Sckhmet to compass their complete destruc¬ 
tion 1 2 . Thus we seem now to be in possession of tangible evidence that the clue afforded by the 
mention of the name of Re (11,11) is the real key to the whole section. To my mind the 

decisive proof is given by the expression ( ^^ jj ‘the first generation' in 12,2. The 

philological note on this expression will show that it is very nearly synonymous with p @ <5* [ , 
the phrase which was technically used by the Egyptians to designate the age following im¬ 
mediately upon the creation of the world, the age, in fact, when Re was king upon earth. 

Whatever interpretation be given to the remainder of the passage, die central fact that 
it refers to Re may now, I think, be reckoned as a fait acquis. In 12,3—6 we are confronted 
by difficulties of a more serious order; grammar and syntax are It ere so obscure that we can but 
guess at tbe sense. The words and in 12, 3, in the following sentence, 

and ^ 

Ci ( ' =a further down (12,4) make it fairly clear that the propagation of the human 
race is in some way under discussion. Interwoven with these words are others referring to 
misfortunes, adversity or the like (nhR-ib 12,3; sSty 12,3}- Combining these data and translating 
as best we may, we can dimly discern a train of thought not inappropriate to the preceding 
context. It has been said that if Re had known all the evils which would spring up in con¬ 
sequence of men’s wicked natures, he would have destroyed men and so have prevented the sub¬ 
sequent disasters (12,2—3). This was not done; and the lines 12,3—6 seem to describe the 
result. Men desired birthif). Hence sadness grew «/(?), and needy people (?) on every side. So 
it wastp), and it shall not pass awayQ ), so long ir^(?) the gods in the midst thereof endure 
Seed shall come forth from (or in) the women of mankind-, the implication is that this is the cause 
of all evil. After this we appear to return to a consideration of the future prospects of Egypt. 
It seems to be hinted that someone will come, whof) shall destroy the wrongs that they (i. e. men) 
have brought about. But there A(?) no pilotf) in their moment — this may perhaps mean, that 
now, while the authors of evil still live, the saviour is not yet at hand. At last we touch firm 
ground in three sentences that clearly refer to the looked for (but not necessarily prophesied) 
redeemer. Where is he today ? Doth he sleep perchance ? Beholdyc, his might is not seen (12,5—6)! 

11,13. l' or ^ ie contrasted words sndw and shm-ib cf. Rektimere 8,38; 10,23. — in 
, if not corrupt, must be used as an auxiliary verb. This usage however is not very 




1) See Erman, Dlf tigypthefu Rtligien pp. 32—33. 

2) The Tntauinu of rhk unknown tvord can only be conjectured from the dctcmmmiirc, 

Text, VianUnlion and Commentary. 


well authenticated; besides; the example cited by firman, GrammA S 252, Setlie quotes the 
obscure phrase gj <=* (| ]^ [1 (var. hnf) Ebers 106,5; 5 9 - — tnt L M>™ h>' >s, as 

we have seen, possibly to be emended in 9,9 above, where the context is quite unintelligible. 

12^ i, For the metaphorical use of mhiw 'herdsman' as applied to princes, Homers tig*- 
nivalatuv, cf* sL Z. 42 (1905), 12 1; the image, which is no uncommon one, is continued in the 
following sentences. — For b^/, idr and nun see the notes on 2,13; 9,2; and 9,2 respectively, 
12,2, Hi may here, like tiw above in 11,13, be a metaphor for the discord that inflames 

the hearts of men; ef. 7,1. — Hi .* , k} -would that 1 .‘then, cl* below 13,5 6 ; 

similarly with hi nt^ Bni . A fits* 5645, recto 13 (see the Appendix); and with htv lor /fi, Rekh- 

mere 7, 10 §^ (| f| ^13^ 1 ^ t ^ 0U 

I say; then would Right rest in its place’; an instance with ^^ | ^ as w * s h"P art < c l e Cairo 

Lovesong 13. The use of /■? in the apodosis of a conditional sentence (cf. 5,3 note), implied or 
expressed, is one of its chief employments; cf. the Arabic The protasis may be replaced by 

a wish, as here, or by a rhetorical question, as below 12, 14; 14, 13- M» or e * se ^V iniperative 

( l do this, [and if thou dost so] then.’), e. g- IVestcar 1 1, -5- 

The words wd bit occur once again in a biographical inscription ol the Middle Kingdom 

Brit. A/us. 574 = Sharpe, Eg. Inner^ I 79 y 5 

hAiWA I A 

0 I 

Q y —7 

His Majesty used to greet me, for he perceived my quality [bit-?) of every day* i. e. lie recognized 
that 1 was always excellent. The verb ad ‘to perceive or the like, is very' rare. The only other early 
instance known to me is not quite certain; at the bottom of a stele of the early Middle Kingdom 

from Gcbelcn(?), Brit. A/ns. 1372, (belonging to the whose ‘good name 

(|V we read the two following lines: ® 0 g=g; . \ 

p.—jg 1 ^ jj <= ^' 3 l I have not done the deeds of any 


small man, I have done the deeds of a prince and overseer return for there 

being made for me a field to support a a «/;-priest on it(??), and (in return for) there being given 
to me cloth, oil and honey. 1 have moreover done what men love, in the knowledge of the 

princes, in the moment of making.'(?) 3 . Here m ad (srw) is probably the equivalent ol 

the phrase m rh n {rmt or bw-nb\ on which see Rec. dc Trav. 26, 13. Later instances of *nd are: 
ijtpcx ‘because he had perceived his excellence' Louvre C m; 

I T L J 

jjj^ ^ l his form and his complexion are not known 1 Rochem. Edfou 430,3; Pichl, Jnscr . II 2 C J, — 
| (j o ^ is a word meaning 'quality 1 ^character*, originally (like q ) neutral in sense, but 

tending to signify ‘good character 1 owing to its frequent employment in such common phrases as 
(e + g. Hat Nub Graffiti 1,9) and (] <^U Jjfj ^ q ^ (e* g. Urkttndm IV 133). In 

]) Soi the least interesting part of this little text, which seemed worth quoting entire* in spite of the irrelerancy of so dom*:, is 

for Q S “~ J ; and ice Sethe's 

1 O 

the abbreviition _ (j for the name note the final letter i as in || 

article A. Z. 4,1 {[QO7), 90. 

^1 Itcad imy-rf , for thi^ title Griffith quotes to me Petrie Atkribh 2; for the woid twtiw cf. Urkundtn i, 2, 

3) PrtilrtMy nothing lost after c«=3 T For the obscure ivords at the end, cf. Wtnl 36—7. 

tkinliner, Thi; Ailmiiiiilitiiis i.f nu Kj;y|ilimiL Sat; 1 -' 


tin 1 present iust:mr<‘ ill r implication is that m^n's rharntlors arc had: it is not rasy to find a Hnv: 
parallel for this bm tlio neutral (mbit ally Linrolonnjd) meaning of bU is amsiud hy tin; 

fret]i]t;nty with which its significance is supplemented by the epithets n/rt or AhV, and by the 

fact that in such sentences as 

J n 

t ~ = T- -* 

W I 


Int is often replaced by such colourless 

words as rf. furtlier Louvre C 26*21 is is mv 

diameter in very truth’ (hi occurs in a parallel clause in the preceding line). Three words 
must be carefully distinguished: (i) T'hc word or ‘character’ is never early 

written either with or with ^Ei. (for old instances cf. Sint 3, 12; 5,22; Prisse 15,4, Proc. 

S. P\ A. 18, 196, 15), and this statement holds good also of the iStli. dynasty, wiLh the single 
exception of the instance quoted above from Louvre C 26; its reading is therefore probably bit, 

not 6 /P. (2) PiU ‘wonder’, on the other hand, is at an early dale written with ? (cf. ||(j 0 

/-. D. 11 149c, Hammamat, 1 i tli. dyn.) or with Ata- (iStli. dyn. passim; and implied in the stroke 

° f JQ JL MDD in the Wcstcar ) and is derived from a verb ‘to wonder’ which is spell with 
as early as the Pjramidtexts (cf. N 789). (3) Different both from bit ‘character’ and blit ‘wonder' 
is the masculine word Jjt) ^ which is found in the Eloquent Peasant P /, 109, and in the 
phrase Irt bl, Prissc 5,5; 17, 13; Turin 2. 

^ K; ^ rst cf. Jirit. Mas. 5645, recto 6 (see the Appendix); 

jJj Totb. cil. Nav. 133, 10; Hathor is called ^*]| ,f l u een 

0 I 

<=> I 

ai the hrst (divide) generation * Mar. Dcud\ 111 73d. Hi Is, properly speaking, body' of men 

^ o it 

AS), bm is specially used in the sense ‘generation’; cf. 

'V’ w* 

O 1 a I 

‘tell it to generation after generation' Leiden V i; f j* ~rr J|^ ‘generations pass’ Max Muller, 

Licbcshcdcr 1,2 (Tomb of Neferhotep); Statue of Horcmheb 4; Mar. Abyd. I 51,36. For tpt, 

d - □ ©! die ~ Urz<:it ’ 

* S a coinmon rase, often found in the Totenlmch. The exact mean¬ 
ing of sdb has still to be determined; for its use in non-religious texts cf. Pap. Kahvn 13.34, 
where jl j| should be read; Rckhmere 2,14. — to stretch forth the arm’, in 

a hostile sense already in the Pyramidiexis , W 607; N 924 (with at ‘against’); cf. too Pec. de 
Prav. 16,125 (late stele from Luxor, with r). 

12,3. jV/tit-lb, cf. j.cbeusmhde 56, where we ought perhaps to read (j^ 

^q ! ^ ; Erman however read Ait (Br. IVorterb. Si/ppl. 780), which is also 

possible. In an unpublished literary papyrus from the Ramessoutn (M. K.) occurs the sentence 


O | o 

f — Sjr T cf. 

(var. fli§) 

!t should be noted thal several words of tl^c stem bli are pcrsistcnlly written bt w ithout the final radical i , x^ for example 

1 mine\ which is proved to have ih* reading btivi by an isolated variant, Weill, Kemtif 5 

'heaven' 'lirirnment' 

should perhaps by analogy also be transliterated Mi or though not a single in<d + ince with J is known in early tc\ts* However the 

case with bit 'character' is different, as the oldest instance* Are without the determinatives , in which the reading Ml ^eems to be 

implicitly expressed* 

T 7 

Test, Translation and Commentary. 

S 3 

1 I tender eh 2b; 6; 11 b. Other examples are r|noted by Erman on Lebeus- 

miide 28. 

j 2,4. ‘to pass by' cneme, see my note Rcc. dc Trap. 26,11. — Styt , infinitive 

of the verb cf. jV^ Beni ha sail II 4. — I fumy r hr, cf. Millingen 2,2; Amada stele 3. 7; 

fuser, dedie. 99; Urkuudeu III 60; on the form with -ny see Sethc, Verbum II §§ 117,4, 683,60. 

12,5. Dr ha, compare the examples quoted above on 12,3; and Lepsius, Alt. Textc 1,9. 
— Is (n) hit. a ‘pilot’ on board a ship, cf. Urkuudeu IV 310, Auasl. II 9, 2. — As Sethc points 
out hi ha rf in is as impossible as man ubtl would be in Latin; one of the two interrogative 
words must be omitted. Possibly two sentences have here been blended into one. — Lange 

translated ,,untcr Euch“, which of course demands the correction ^ ; Sethc is 

doubtless right in rendering ‘behold’. 

12 , 6 - 12 , 11 . 


Q @1 M 

-^k $ 



]~rt~ 1 HW a Q 


a kb^ 

j 1 


;] {' 2 '7) ^ y e „L“iiri 

0 o'Ui >8A * " 

rTJ| s - 



JP Pr 

^ 1 ' 


’ 1 B El 1 about J squares lo 5 . | f^*SU (‘ 2 * 9) fff 

S squares 

I D 

9 Squares lust ^ 

I 11 



IP % p 

|| % about 5 squares lost p 

(■*• >o)^«o.^r„|^r^]q|p s qq<tin,.q 


■/ e A 

feu* (£^ 4 ? ? 

a © I I I 

I ^|! 

If kv .., I should not have found theeif)\ 1 should not have been 

called m vainif) ... a sayiugif) that is on the 

lips of ereiybody. Today fear .... more than a million of people. Not seen . enemies . . . 

.* * * - - enter nUo the temples . -.. . . weep . . . His 

words go adrifff). . .. Ike statues wouldQ) [not:] be burnt , iheirif) tombs 

would be safcQ) . see him ip) on theQ) day of . all ■ . . . He 

who nes*cr made for hint self . . ,} between heaven and earth fears on account of ciwyoue. 

i2 P 6 —t 2, i k hese lines are too much interrupted by lacunae to be intelligible. If the 
pronoun o in it guru) tiv be correct, the king must already here be addressed. The last sentence 

seems by its form to belong to a descriptive passage; and the same conclusion is suggested by 
the reference to the burning of statues in i 2, io. 

]2.6 + Sum is here clearly transitive, and cannot therefore be identified with sum L to 
mourn (see on 2,5) in spite of the determinative, Lange proposes to emend sum ‘to feed\ and 


fordincr, The Admonitions of an L-^yphan Kage. 

to rentier; 'if wt: had been ted, we should not have found thee (i. e. sought thee out), 1 should 

not have been called.' — Sswn tb, cf. 11,5. 

12,7, Cf. Proc. S. D. A. 18,203, line 16 ^ Q " ‘that proverb which is on 

the lips of the great’; perhaps before hry ri we should emend ^ — For the faulty 

writing of mhi, cf. 5,2. 

12.9. Siw)/ti see on 2,11. 

12.10. Wbd hvt cf. 16,14. 


O -Al n 

I ^ X 


i i- 1 O 

A q' 

1 n 


k*j n*z« 9 -ks«!i^P 


— ^^^¥"'(-..4)?^ ''®kk?k¥" <1 

ZXtihZTV' 3 ’ ,)ro J x ]§ 

pi-pizk.^ ^oz^x.r, zkukuk^iPUk^ 
-SfiatkfT WZ-^rr.-fmktk- <■**>« 

I (L— A A 



n : 

e H n 



Cu. 4) ro 

C» TL _X 

***** _ r w 1 



O @ 


@ __I . 

o n!-=-^»! ^ 

^ 7kCV Z!k£,kPMZZ ZJ«Cikj> 

i^Ckra c 3 ,o ^ : ; r ;khe,^ 

, M*AW 

G| IffllP: 

Ci g| l# 3 a ^ nc 

I'— (‘3. 7)kk^^#k ( l™J e 0'ikf’k ! ,a !-i>-'V..r 

--1 C^lli^-kkfJi-^fmHrtl - ^ V. —|C 3 . 9 ) II 

a yet nolt / on plale T2. 

b Ms. 

> 1 <:=I> O | 


c Ms. \\ 

<1 Ms. 

.* *.. , . + , . .. what thou ha test to /ahcQ). 7 as!t\ 

Kuotoh'dgc and Truth arc with thee , Confusion is what thou dost pul throughout the laud, 
together with the noise of tumult. Ik hold one uses violence against another . People conform lo 

Ttxt, I rnn^latirm aiul CommciUsry. 


that which thou hast commanded, ff three men journey upon a road, they are found to be two 
men\ the greater number slay the /ess. Is there a herdsman that loves death} Then loon hist thou 
eomniand to make reply, it is because one man ioves and another hates if], that their formsfj) arc 
few on every side. It is because thou hast acted as to bring these things abouttj). Thou 

hast spoken fa/sehood . The land is as a weed that destroys men . Then people would not reckon 
upon (?) life. All these years arej) discordant strife. A man is killed upon his housetop , He is 
vigilant in his boundaryJiouse. Is he brave ? ( Then) he saves himself, and he livestf). People 
send a sers’antQ) to poor men. He walks upon the road until he secs the food if. The road is 
dragged (i with (he drag-tie/}}). He stands there in misery f). What tic has upon him is taken 
away. He is belaboured (?) with Slows of the stick, and wrongfully slain. Would that thou 

mightesl taste some of these miseries'. Then wouidsl thou say . from 

another as a wallQ) . hot . years . 

12,11 — 13,9. The speaker now turns to the king, and passionately denounces his callous 
indifference to the scenes of bloodshed daily witnessed upon the public highways. The Tharaoh 
himself, to whom Religion and Literature ascribed the attributes of Taste, Knowledge and Truth, 
is the cause of the confusion and tumultuous noise that fill the land (12,12 —12,13). 1* I s 
due to his commands that every man’s hand is against his fellow (12,13), U" three men travel 
together two of them conspire with one another against the third, whom they kill (12, 13—12,14), 
Is it possible, asks the speaker, that a ruler, the shepherd of his people, should wish to see his 
subjects die (12,14)? Here the king is imagined to reply to the charge brought against him 

(12,14—13, t)- The answer is obscure, but the king seems to shift the responsibility on to the 

people themselves (13,1). Nay, it is what thou hast done that has brought these things to pass', 
thou Itcst retorts the sage, who then proceeds to illustrate anew the murder and rapine that meet 
his gaze wherever he looks. He ends with the bitter wish: Would that thou mighiest taste some 

of these miseries , then wouldst thou tell another tale (13,1 — 13, 5 ). — The passage is by no 

means lacking in obscurity, yet there can, I think, be no doubt but that it is the king who is 
here addressed with such vehemence. We know from 15,13 that the king was among the 
dramatis personae of the book, and various expressions in the passage before us cannot well refer 
to any other personage. Such are the words ffw S'ti Mil in 12, 12; wd 'command’ in 12, 13. 14, 
mhiw 12,14 (see above on 12,1); and finally the wish in 13,5—13,6, whicli could only be said 
to one who was relatively little affected by the devastation of the land (cf. 2, 11). 

12, 12. Hw and Sii are very often associated with one another (cf. already Pyramid- 
texts W 439) as attributes of the king; compare $ ^ /— < ^~ => 

L Taste 

is m 

thy mouth, Knowledge is in thy heart, thy tongue is the shrine of Truth’ 


Kuban stele 18; similar phrases are addressed to king Rehotep, Petrie Koptos 12, 3. — Ski, 
'see on 2,1 t- 

12,13. For humo, see the note on 6,1. — Wd is often used with an object such as 
, nfjfj Q ^ (cf. 7,6), s | or ‘exerting’ violence or the like against some¬ 

one. For the absolute use here exemplified no better parallel is forthcoming than the amulet 
Pap. Leiden 35S Q ^ e ^ ' A ~ @ ^ ‘0 thruster, thou dost not thrust (i. e. use violence) 

against him’ — Sn followed by r seems never to mean to ‘transgress’, but either (1)‘to be like’ 


Gnriliner, The Admonitions of no Egyptian S^e, 

or (2) 'to make like' ‘copy’ 'imitate'. For the latter meaning cf. Urkunden IV 58 ‘I shall be 
praised for my knowledge after years /]**“" Q ^_ **7^ 0 by those who shall 

imitate what I have done'; and another instance, determined by J\, A, Z, 14(1876), 107; for 
other examples, either with or with only, see Krebs, De Chnemothis nomarchi inscrip- 

tioue , p, 42. 1 Icre we have an extension of this use which may be paralleled by _ol 5 < E, 



hSWWS ro 

am a noble pleased with truth, conforming to the laws of the 

Hall of Truth 1 Turin 154 = Ret. dt Trav. IV 132, 

12,(4. The two particles hr k< in close juxtaposition are curious, but in literary texts an 
accumulation of particles is by no means rare; cf. m> hf Ipu below 13,9; uni hr, Rekh- 
ntcre 10,9.23. — hi 7 vU, cf. Urkunden IV 970; L. I>. HI i40<N'2- 

13.1. r l'he answer of the king is extremely obscure. Mnvl to' and ttisd ky are evidently 

opposed to one another. Is it perhaps meant that murder arises through the diversity of men’s 
desires, because the one wishes that which the other abhors? — fr-nk is pw r shpr nfi is shown 
by the repetition of is pu> to belong to the king’s answer. The clause is difficult, but might 

possibly mean: ‘thou bast acted (in such a way, as) to bring these things about’. Cf. 12,3 for 

nfi and 1 2, 5 for shpr. 

13.2. A \iki is very' frequent in Ebcrs and elsewhere; from the passage describing the 

various possible forms of death that may befall a man Pap . Turin 121,4 ^ ^ITD 

? 1 ^ u u ^ ^ i “ "T1 ° H%'tP'x k ® ^: 

‘by a death owing to trees, by a death owing to plants(?), by a death owing to all kinds 

of reeds, bv a death owing to all kinds of vegetable' we may perhaps conclude that kiki is 

a generic word for ‘plants’ or ‘shrubs’, not the name of a particular species. — Iffy 1 above 

3, 11 i 7i 6. 

13.3. hvf rsf etc., cf. the similar sentences 9,14—10,1: by constant vigilance the man 
who is brave may succeed in saving himself, but all others perish. 

13.4. an unknown word, may be corrupted from some such term as r t>bi 'the 

butler’ ‘servant’, an antecedent being required for the suffix of sm-f. — e^n j\ ’ so writtcn 
also in jo, 13, may possibly be an error — ‘sweeping inumdation’ ‘Hood for 

which see Griffith’s additional note on Pap . Mahan 2,12. If so, it might be meant that the 

messenger goes along the raised gisr or embankment above the Inundated land, until he reaches 
the point where it is broken down, and where men are dragging with the hsh-nct. There he makes 
a halt, and is promptly robbed and slain. — For ii/i-fw wit we might compare Mar. Abyd. 1 49 c, 

‘1 w *0 ^ Uiee the dragnet in the Marshlands. 

I drag for thee the region of the Cataract', where ith lias the quite exceptional meaning of 'to 

use the drag-net in’ a place; iih is used of the fish-net below in 13,11. 

13.5. For suni see the note on 4,12. The following words are repented from 5,12 
above, — Ih . . . . /-i, 'would that 1 .... ‘then’, see on 12,2. 

Tl'M, Vr.itislmujii ;\ui\ CJom menI. l ry T 



13 , 9 . 


■ A 



-b Vi »ii^‘ ,,i!it if ^ 10 ^ iifiit 

a Traces of y rubric. 

b SK 7\ I 

It is however good, token ships {}) soil up sir catnip) 
robs them. 

[no one'\ 

13,9. Closely following upon, and in vivid contrast to, the sinister picture disclosed in the 
preceding- lines, comes a series of short sections describing the joy anti prosperity of the land in 
a happier age. The introductory- formula tw trf hm{tv) njr , with which each of these sections is 
introduced, probably means no more than: l how good is it when . , . . km being, as Lange saw, 
the particle often used to mark a contrast, cf. Erman, Aeg. Gramm! £ 344. Sethe is probably 
right in preferring this view to another which I had suggested, namely that htnw is a word for 
‘ruler’ and that the formula should be rendered: 'is there a good ruler, then . . . The main 
objection to this is that no such word for ‘ruler 1 is known, though very possibly the Egyptians 

knew of a verb hm connected with ‘rudder’ (often used of the stedfast, safe ruler, 

e. g, Eloquent Peasant B /, 90) and with ‘steersman’ (e. g. ibid. 126. 222). Il would 

further be strange that the determinative ^ should in not a single instance follow kuna, and my' 
suggested translation would perhaps require /j ^ (j p instead of simply (je* 

the reading of the Ms., could, as Sethe remarks, only have its usual sense 
‘position’. I suspect that the archetype had 'him hr hntyt 'ships sail upstream’, as emended above. 

13 , 10 . 

It is however good , when 

13 , 10 — 13 , 11 . 

LMJ <■*»> 

a .Us, | 

// is however good) when the ud is drawn in, and birds are made fast . 

13, t 1, For jj ^ wc should undoubtedly read fj 5 'drag-net ; lir. Worterb, \ 52 

quotes an example of the phrase ith hdf L to draw in the net\ — Mh ‘to bind elsewhere ap- 
imrently uni) in the Poem on the Chariot (/!. iS |t88o| 3 95), 29—30 (j | $ 

(i.irdincr, Tlie A'lmoiiitium nl" an K^yptian 


" ri " J fBUttS " lth >' Bh “” t 

bind those who are wicked', hor the substantive nth ‘bonds 1 Matters' cA\ Auast, V \ j y i — Salt. f 6 y 7; 
Harris 500, verso 2,5.x, 12. 

13,11 —13, T2h 

TV ^ -^S?- | 

a? M 

gg 5 > jUJICS ]f)st 

1 (' 3 . >0 


. n ~““ k 0 o 

I I I 1 - D WVM 




Mil ^ 

It is however good, when [the tombs}] . The mummies{}) [are restored}] to 

them. The roads are passable . 

13, 12. SInv ‘dignity’ L oflice’ docs not seem to be suitable here, and possibly s hw 'mum¬ 
mies' (cf* 16, 14) should be read. We might then have the converse of 4,4 = 6, 14 above, where 
the dead are said to have been taken from the tombs and exposed on the high ground. 

13 , 12 — 13 , 13 . 




1 1 f 

HTI T^lkralQ'JJTO 

b Ms, 

f t 1 

n is however good , when the hands of men bttild pyramids. Ponds are dug, and plan¬ 
tations are made of the trees of the gods . 

13*12* The emendation hws-sn for shw-sisn is obvious and certain; hws mr , cf. f.cbcns- 

miidc 61, We have already found a dear case of the disintegration of one \yard into two 

above in 5,8, where must be read for C T > |[1. 

13,13. The larger and better-equipped tombs of all periods had their ponds and their 
gardens, as Maspero has shown {Tfades dc Myth* et d'Arch* IV 241—X}* — The reading mnw 
'monuments' is evidently wrong* and we can hardly hesitate to emend l “ 1 0 (] |. This word else- 

where menus 'trees' and not precisely 'garden*, but it is specially used of trees in a plantation 
(c. g. Ur k mi den IV 73; louvre C 55; Harris 7,12), so that its employment here would be but a 

slight extension of the usual significance. —— The 'trees of the gods' are perhaps those which 

come from the 'divine land ^ 

t t I A <=r> 

ft ts however good, when people are drunken. They drink and their hearts are glad . 

13,13* For the spoiling fl with x cf. fibers 2L 14; and similarly 

r ( 

x o 

=> 111 

si-wr, ibid, 9* 1 3, — Myt y only here* 

t 3, 14, Afr, of the heart, see on 3,12. 

Text, Tr&Dstaticn *nd Commentary. 


13 , 14 - 14 , 1 . 



a >ls. has meaningless signs; -see the pi.Me. 

I I 1 _£) 
<=>o | 

b Ms. {J 

It is hoicci’er good, when rejoicing is in (men’s) months. The magnates of districts stand 
and look on at the rejoicing in their houses (?), clothed in {fine}) raiment, purified in front, made 
to flourish in the midst {**). 

13,14. The word mii ‘to see’ has a strong suggestion of the wall-paintings of the tombs, 
where the nomarch s:ands and inspects his dependents busy with their crafts or indulging in 
various forms of amusement. 

14.1. The emendation CD | j is both easy and suitable, but it is difficult to conceive how 

so simple a word could have been misunderstood by the scribe. — Hiti ‘a garment’ is, as 
Sethe points out, the Coptic jocitc; of. below 14,4; Deir el Gebrawi II 13; Pap . wed. Ida him 2,8; 
Zander spy. f. Mutter u. Kind S, 3. The word is here corruptly written. The three participles 
his, twry , and srwd seem to refer to bwlw, but it is not easy to fathom their meaning. The 
parallelism of r hit and m hr-ib leads one to suspect that hbs may originally have been followed by 

§1 instead of m hiti. 



(‘ 4 i 3 ) 



14 , 1 - 14 , 3 . 



A Ms. 

^ I 

b Msh \\ 

It is however good , when beds are made ready (r). The headrests of princes arc stored in 
safety if). The needf) of every man is satisfied with a couch in the shade. The door is shut upon 
him, nil of) [formerly ?) slept in the bushes. 

14.1. For the spelling of Uiwt cf. Pinnkhi iio; the old form is 

14.2. The verb idt seems both here and above in 9,1 to be used of ‘making ready' 

a sleeping-place, but no such word is known to the dictionaries, — Tir is a word of rare oc¬ 
currence; the earliest of the known examples Urkmtdm IV 84. S96 are quite obscure, perhaps 'to 
keep safe’ in l' ? ’*=» ‘ th V n “ k is kept safe{?) for thee' Festival 

Songs )i,2; ‘O Osiris, offered to thee is the mn-wr, (J 


ni ^ 't) thy flesh 

\ I 1 t o 

being preserved, thy bones being sound' Mar. Dend. IV 51a. — Sirt elsewhere means 'wisdom' 

G ardint f 


CartLmer, The A<1 munitions of an K^yjjlian S,ijje t 

‘sense' (see the note on 16,1), no feminine word meaning ‘want' or the like being found else- 
where: cf. however ailc ^ ^ ie notc on 12,3. — l 7 or *wyt sec on 7,13. 

14*3. Sethe proposes to take sdr m bit as qualifying the preceding suffix; unless this is 
done, we must assume that some words are lost. 


= G° 

5!~AMra^Ku,4) lilliiiiiu 


squares ^ | L P( ^ mart 

.... tv^rm kfi.-,_ ta .Bi)Sc. 4 . 5 )i 

| -- © A I ?*"" ^ ^ 1 ^ p 

II 1/3 of » line l°“ : d fO Ci V ! '2$ i | §§ *Vj lines lost =J 

a Ms. 0 @ 4 

It is however good t when fine linen is spread out on the day of the Newyearf) .. 

on (?) the bank. Fine linen is laid ouiQ), garments are on the ground f). The overseer (?). 

. trees. The poor . 

1^,3. '['he section seems to have to do with the use of fine linen for festival purposes, 

M y 

people no longer fearing to leave it spread out in public places. — For ^, of clothes, 
cf. Eloquent Peasant B /, 34; of papyrus-rolls, cf. Rekhniere 2,2. 

14,4. IJitl, see on 14,1. — is unknown; should we emend 

14 , 10 — 15 , 13 . 

* * 9 

Hue* lost | ^4’ 1 °) P, , t U 3 h 

of a line losl 

qTSfciaiv.—iz: k?< . .>rr.r 



(M, I2 ) |\ , 


fi nr¥Yn rvvvvv * 

O P ^\\ 

--6 j O 

a ! i _b 


^ £—6 squires lost ^ 

-I n A iSAdWvA 

Jl., .• 




11 Q 

(' 4 , t 3 ) Jf 

III Jfs 

AiWVSA I rtrtrtAW 

r. q-Mkikkim <m.m> 

&r,i?w avs 

I 3 XKJ 





I I t I I li 

G J^\ mu 

1 . 4 9 , 

ffi r^o 
es i 

^ jr^ A,VyVAV 



ill IK 

(l 5 r 2 ) () 

-iv- i_0 




ZZZ *-J S( i uires losl 

Tcit t Translation ami Commentary, 
> ? 


r , j (.5,5)1, , i^a—d 

ilWQ||H l i ^5 S “ 6 square? lost jg ^ 3 ’ ^ about 5 iqu.ircs lost ^<=>H X 

more th.n l,' t . line j C'5. 6 ) | «.,i, ./j oT . Hl«|f ““fl Jl/, IW. let j (' 5. 1 °) j .1 1 . )i«c j 
Hk « 'MSI'/, n- .o» I Cs. 1 » i «*, lice los. |«S,”7*.“J e 'j! Vi.r. d. J (' 5. ' 2 ) 

4 *’>•<, '/, »r . S^S^II JLf^PreO V. »». I ('S’ '3) WfVCT,- 

. [in the midstH\ thereof like Asiatics ... 

Men . their manner. They have come to an end for themselves (??). There are none found to 

stand and \protect}\ themselves (?) ....... Every man fights for his sister, he protects him* 

self if'- Are {they) Negroes ? Then we protect oitrselves Q). Multiplied are warriors (??) to repel the 
people of the Bow. Is it Temhit Then we tarn backQ). The Mazoi are happy Q) with Egypt. How 
should every man slay his own brother ? The troops which we recruited for ourselves are become 
a people of the Bow , and have come to destroyQ). What has happened^) .... through itQ ?) ts{ r) to 
cause the Asiatics to know the condition of the land. All foreign tribes are full of its fear. The 

taste of men . without giving Egypt . It is strong ip) .. . 

. say concerning you after years . devastate itself. He who remains f) 

makes their houses to HveQT) . to cause his children to live .. 

. Generations (?) said ?. fish 

. gum .. . mostp) provisions . 

14,10—15,13. A gap of more than four lines introduces a long section which, if it had 
been preserved complete, might well have shed a clear light upon the historical situation pre¬ 
supposed by our hook. In its present mutilated condition even the general trend ol the passage 
is obscure. The first words of 14,11 compare someone with the Asiatics 1 t0 w ^ 0rn 

allusions have been made in several passages above (cf. 3,1; 4,5—S; 10,1 — 2), though without 
explicit mention of their ethnical name. In 14,12—13 some people, perhaps the Egyptians them¬ 
selves, are apparently reproached with cowardice. A series of difficult and elliptical sentences 
in 14,13—14 appears to refer to the relations of Egypt with its foreign neighbours on the South 
and West. These sentences are followed by the rhetorical question: how should every man slay 
his (non brother ? The only thing that is here plain is that the Libyans and Nubians are some¬ 
how contrasted with the more dangerous enemy on the Eastern boundary. The Asiatics are 
again named in 15,1, and in the foregoing sentence it is possibly explained how they came to 
know the condition of the land. Sethc thinks that the words dlmw (s-u nn hpr m Pdt hint at a 
mutiny of Asiatics, whom the Egyptians, following their ancient custom of employing foreign 
mercenaries, had enrolled in their army. These Asiatics, he understands, had fallen to plundering 
and had made themselves the masters of Egypt. The hypothesis is attractive, but the words 
hpr m Pdt are too little intelligible for one to feel any great confidence as to their meaning, 
In 15,3 we may guess that this national disaster was spoken of as a thing which would remain 
as a blot in the memory of the Egyptians for many generations to come. After this the con¬ 
text once more becomes shrouded in utter darkness. 


Gardiner. The Admonition* of in Egyptian 

A graver difficulty than the obscurity of the individual sentences that compose this section 
is the fact that we have now no longer any certitude as to the identity of the speaker. From 
the words what Ipitmer said, when he made answer to the Majesty of the Sovereign in 15,13 it 
may safely be concluded that a speech of the king preceded. It is of course wholly impossible 
to regard the king as the speaker from the very beginning of the papyrus down to 15„ 13. 
From i, ] down to 14 T 5 we were able to trace, though with difficulty at some points, a continu¬ 
ous thread of thought; and in 12,11—-13,9 we found unmistakable; evidence of the kings being 
directly addressed. The reflections of Ipuwer may fitly have ended with the passage 13,9—14,5, 
where after many pages of gloomy forebodings and violent recriminations a picture of peace and 
prosperity is unfolded. '1 hat passage describes a joyful and harmonious era, such as Egypt had 
known in the past and might still perhaps know in the future. It is by no means likely that 

Ipuwer, after holding out this hope, reverted any more to the disasters that had overwhelmed 
Egypt. For tins reason the most probable hypothesis is that the commencement of the king's 
words fell in the gap between 14,5 and 14,11. However as no internal evidence on this point 
can be found in the passage 14,11 to 15,3, there remains the possibility that the king's speech 
began in ibe midst of page 15, where the context is completely lost. 

14.12. Nik f/w-f possibly in a disparaging sense, as in the obscure sentence 9,3. 

14.13. Here there are two elliptical questions, each of which is answered by /i; on this 

use of the particle, see 12,2 note. — It is unnecessary to emend ht hvs to in Iwsn^ as the 

singular suffix may refer to Pd/, which was treated as a feminine singular above 3,1. 

1 5, 1. For see on 7, i, — Hprt nf )mf is obviously corrupt, as the suffix is without 
an antecedent. The meaning must somehow be: "the result of this was that.’ 

G nm x 


1 1 


cs 0 


“"i 1 8 

t? q«si«T?!P.T. n 

5 ItjUircS lost || 1 *4) 'j q 



rr, HiMiP.T, 



a Mt. 

What JpuwerQ) said, when he answered the Majesty of the Sovereign . all 

cattle. To be ignorant of it is what is pleasant in if heir) hearts. Thou hast done what is good 

in their hearts. Thou hast nourished people with it If. They cover { r) their (?). through 

fear of the morrow. 

15, 3—t6, 1. That a speech of the king has just ended is a legitimate deduction from 

the opening words of this section. The sage, whose name \vc here learn for the first time, noiv 

answers him. Docs his reply mark a new stage in the debate, and did argument and counter¬ 
argument continue to alternate with one another far beyond the limits of the papyrus in its pre¬ 
sent mutilated form? Or arc we here approaching the end of the book? The former view has 
a primd facie plausibility, for amid the sparse fragments of the sixteenth page there is no ex¬ 
ternal sign of discontinuity with what precedes; and when the left margin of the papyrus is reached 

Teat* Translation and Commentary. 


in 17, i — 2, sentences arc there cut into halves by it 1 2 . Nevertheless there are strong grounds 
for thinking that the Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage ended with the word dwiyt in j 6, i. 
The arguments that make in favour of this conclusion will be set forth in the notes on 16, i —17, 2; 
here it will be best merely to consider the consequences that will result from its acceptance. 
The Gespriich cities Lcbensnuidcn viit seiner Seek, an ancient literary text edited by Erman from 
a llerlin papyrus, has often been mentioned in this work, and its close relationship to the Ad¬ 
monitions both in form and in vocabulary lias been emphasized in the Introduction (p. 3). Now 
if our Leiden text ends in 16,1, its conclusion will be seen to show a very considerable resem¬ 
blance to that of the Lebetismiide , where the debate as to whether life or death be j referable 
is abruptly terminated by n brief speech introduced by the phrase ^ *. 

The concluding words of Ipmver, if such they be, are by no means so clear as wc could 
wish. The Egyptians are apparently likened to cattle, for whom ignorance is bliss. The sage 
now turns to the king: thou hast done what is good in their hearts. Thou hast nourished them 
with it(J). These words can hardly be understood otherwise than ironically; the king has fostered 
the Egyptians in their lack of knowledge, so that they go their wavs heedless even of their own 
misery and without will ar intelligence to better their condition. The last sentence may perhaps 
be guessed to mean: they veil their facesif) because of the fear of tomorrow, that is, they fear 
to look the future in the face. At all events the phrase fear of tomorrow touches the keynote 
of the book, and may very appropriately be its last utterance: today sorrow is everywhere; un¬ 
less people mend their ways, what hope can they have for tomorrow? 

1 5i The namefjfj^ or ‘ s by n ° means a rare one, and names com¬ 
pounded therewith can also be exemplified; c f-t| 0 ^ 1 Louvre C 7; Paheri 6; and 

{] □ ^> f^j Jpwwr , Pap. Kahun 14, 55. There are no grounds for taking in the name as 
given by the Ms., to be a determinative; if the reading be correct, Jpwsr or Sripzv must be read. 
It is however more probable that the scribe has for once confused the hieratic signs for sr and wr 
(see 4, 2 note) and that fpwwr is to be read. -—- A T b r dr , of the king, cf. Milltngen 2: so too 
in Sinufte 172 it is probably the queen who is designated as nbt r dr. 

15, 14. For the spelling of ‘ wt , cf. 5, 5 note. — Jm-sn may be a corruption of im-s, as 
there is no suitable substantive for the plural suffix to refer to, 

16, 1. hv hbsao-sn hnty-sn is obscure; hbsw may well be an error for the verb hbs. — 
N sud n, see the note on 8, 14. 

16 , 1 - 17 , 2 . 

@ A I 




1 j 


_f\ H 7'r? hncs completely lost ^ (l6„ J _ , |||q q ,*"7 ( 

I H V* of a line lost 

81 ' 6 -’-) HIT 

1) lie it observed, however. thM at the bottom of p. t7 scribbHngs ore still visible that cannot belong to the Admonitions. 

2 ) This relative furm is somewhat unusual, but its literary use U not entirely confined 10 the conclusions of books; it occurs also 
in I. 30 oJ the Lt&tnsmud? t ivhere see hrman's note. Tor the Juristic employment of ifdtn see my Itittnpiion ef p. 12 , cote 2 . 


Cnriliiier, The Admonitions of an ]Cyypli*n Sage. 

Ci ] Cl 

^ M WVW 

[ I r l I 

_II ■* »1» 

'8^« 0 7,.)J<) 

/W ^_£ hlaillt ^ Tc?<,t of line! I O',! j|| 

j (17. =) 


j WiW - 

! o 

li is to bef) an aged man who has not yet died, and his son is young and without under¬ 
standing. He begins . He does not open \his\ month [to\ speak (}) to you. 

Ye seiseQ) him in the fate{}) of death (i). Weep . go . 

after you (?). The earth is ... on every side. If men call to . . 

Weep . their .. enter into the sepulchres , burn the statues . 

. the corpses of the mummies . of directing work 

16, 1 —17, 2. Were the opening words of this passage to be found on a scrap of papyrus, 
isolated from the surrounding context, no scholar would have the least hesitation about pro¬ 
nouncing them to be the beginning of a tale 1 2 . Here however, if they are looked upon as the 
continuation of the speech of lpuwer, they can only be accounted for by supposing them to con¬ 
tain a description of the king as aged and incompetent, while his son is still a babe unable to 
take the place of his father. The extreme improbability of this view can easily be shown, 
lpuwer has, we must remember, begun to answer the king, whom he directly addresses in the 
second person singular, while the Egyptians at large are referred to by the pronoun of the third 

person plural. At this point intervenes the supposed description of the king, without any pre¬ 

liminary word of warning, and from the following line onwards the audience is addressed in the 
second person plural. The abruptness of this change of attitude is, to my mind, quite intolerable, 
even when liberal allowances have been made for the greater freedom of Egyptian idiom in its 
use of pronouns. It has been seen in the notes to the foregoing section how well the Ad- 
monitions might end with the words ‘through the fear of tomorrow’ (16, 1). These considerations 
lead one to frame the hypothesis that dwiyt was really the last word of the Admonitions , but 
that the scribe of the Leiden papyrus, not perceiving that lie bad readied the conclusion, went 
on copying mechanically from the Ms. before him, in which a tale .followed upon the Admonitions, 
This hypothesis fails however to account for the second person plural in the next line and is 
finally disposed of by 16, 13—14 below, where expressions occur that are almost identical 
with phrases that have already been read in the Admonitions. The only way out of the diffi¬ 
culty seems to be to assume that the words ton si pw really belong to the Admonitions and 
contain a description of the king, but that this description, together with the rest of page 16, 
is out of place. In favour of this view it should be observed (1) that the phrases in 16, 13 —14 
are all paralleled by expressions on the twelfth page of the Leiden Ms. and in a part of it where 
the king is evidently being unfavourably criticized, though not as yet directly denounced in the 

second person; (2) that the papyrus from which the scribe copied was clearly defective*, so that 

a column of it may easily have been torn off and have been read by the copyist in a wrong 

1 ) One would in this case translate: Mhere was once an aged man 1 etc.; sec the philological note, 

2) See the Introduction, p. I. 

Tc*i, Translation and Commentary. 


place; (3) at the bottom of page 17 there are traces of writing in a different hand to that of 
the Admonitions , so that this work was either left incomplete or else came to an end not much 
farther on than 1 7, 2. On the strength of this evidence I think that the most natural conclusion 
(though of course there can be no question of arriving at a certain decision on so problematical 
a point) is that the passage (6, r—17, 2 represents a column or page that had become detached 
from the Ms. utilized by the scribe of the Leiden papyrus, and that this page ought to be 
inserted at some point between 12, 6 and T 2, 12. 

16, 1. For the resemblance of the words wn si pw ini etc. to the beginning of a tale, 
one might compare ^ Peasant R ]. — ® with the sdmf 

form cf. ^°| Shipwrecked Sailor 33 and possibly too the first example (j \dtw/T) 
in Scthc, Vcrbum II § 555 k. — For siodi Ho die’ Scthe quotes Harris 22, 1; 77, 12; perhaps 
also to be emended ^ Simthe B 170—1. This word is probably not to 

be confused with which is used of ‘going* to one’s tomb e, g. Sheikh Said 19; Mar. 

Mast. D 10; Breasted, A new historical Stele 12. — Sirt ‘understanding’ ‘intelligence’, such as 
is lacking in a tiny infant, cf. J Hh Turin statue of Harem- 

heb 3; ‘the children of Re whose words are puissant and whose lips are knowing | 1 cq] | 

( 1 ^ and t ^ lc ' r understanding (i. c. the fame thereof) reaches heaven’ Pap . Turin 

132, 14; and so often. 

16, 13. HrwUnbt ,, cf. 12, 3; 13, 1. — /r ii{‘)stw «, cf. 12,6. — cf. 10,3; 12,9. 

16, 14. l k r hwt-ki, cf. 12, 8. — Wbdw tlutlv, cf. 12, 10. 


Brit. Mu$. 5645 (plates 17—18). 

While visiting the British Museum 1 had often noticed the writing-board no. 5645, which 
occupies a conspicuous place among the hieratic ostraca in the Third Egyptian Room’. Tts peculiar 
script, more archaic than that of the tablets around it, made me single it out as a promising 
object of study; red verse-points indicated its contents to be literary, and the few short extracts 
which 1 jotted down in my note-book seemed to correspond to no known text. However it was 
not until half of this book was in print that I found an opportunity of statisfying my curiosity 
with regard to the writing-board. My surprise and pleasure were great when many of the rare 
words known to me from the Admonitions made their appearance one by one, as I advanced 
with the transcription; it seemed almost as though this new text had been written for the ex¬ 
press purpose of illustrating my Leiden papyrus 1 Nor were the resemblances confined to the 
vocabulary alone: the latter parts contain a pessimistic description of the world that vividly recalled 
tile descriptive portions of the Admonitions. At the same time I noted differences both in the 

1) See the official Guide to ike Third and fourth E&'ftiitn A’ooi/ii, p. II there the dcscripticn of no. 7 { 8 . .1 /. 5645) has been 
erroneously LDttfchatted whh lh:il qf uo. 13 (/?. M, $646}, 


Gardiner, The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage* 

form and in the matter which made a comparison with the Admonitions particularly instructive; 
and 1 soon became aware of an especially important point about the writing-board, namely that 
its date can be fixed with certainty. From every point of view therefore it seemed advisable 
to publish this new document as an Appendix to my work on Pap. Leiden 344. 

Bril. Mm. 5645 is a wooden board 55 cm. long and 29 cm. high, covered on both sides 
with a coating of stucco. The stucco is laid upon the wood by means of a coarse network of 
string, which was attached to the board with some adhesive matter. In the middle of the right* 
hand side is a small hole, which made it possible for the board to be suspended from a wall. 
The text consists of four paragraphs of varying length, three of which are upon the recto; the 
verso contains the fourth paragraph, and, lower down, two lines of larger writing that have 
nothing to do with the preceding literary text. The entire board is covered with dirty reddish 
marks which may very easily be confused with the red verse-points, and all the more so since 
the latter have become very pale in colour. The writing is in places very faint, and the task 
of decipherment was in consequence not always quite easy. 

The hieratic hand is perhaps more nearly related to that of the Westcar papyrus than 
to any other well-known text; however I am inclined to assign it to a somewhat later date, at 
all events not posterior to the middle of the 18 th. dynasty 1 For the scribe always employs 

the large uncial form, except in two instances of the ligature ^ (recto 8; verso 4). The plural 

determinative even after a tall sign is often written 1 1 1 horizontally, an indication that the old 
mode of writing hieratic in vertical columns still continued to influence the horizontal script. The 
complete form of ^ in used in recto S. 13, and in recto S the fish in is drawn in great 
detail. The feather is not distinguished from that of mil. The sign ^ exhibits a pecu¬ 
liarity not known elsewhere, the end of the tail being crossed by a short thick transverse stroke. 



PARAGRAPH 1 (Recto 1—4). 

Recto 1. 

vpAftiy, r\ 

a Original apparently 3 



! 0 
< I 

The collation of words , the gathering together of sayings , the quest of utterances with 
ingenious mind, made by the priest of Heliopolis , the ........ Khckheperrc-sonbu, called Qnkhu. 

]. This is the title of the composition. — With the original before me I read ^ p : 

both r—a and o seemed clearly legible. In any case the parallelism of stray mdwt, hdf tsw and 

i) The fact that the kit Is written on a wooden board also points tn this conclusion, We have several such boards doling from 
the lmb. 1o the iSlh. dynasties iu Cairo and elsewhere, lu ihe igih, and 20 th, dynasties they seem to have gone out of fashion. In the 
21 st. dynasty the use of wooden hoards instead of ostraca appears to have heeu revived, though ihe boards of this date are generally do! 
covered with stucco. Of course local conditions may here have determined the choice of wrii i ng-mac trial i; in Thebes limestone ostraca 

were more accessible than, for instance, in Memphis* 



dir hmv shows that must be read. — | ' s un known; Sethe [proposes, and 

I think rightly, to identify the ward with huitcj ‘decerpere’ (fructus, (lores). — M hky n tb, cf. the 
epithet of a god ^ 'who created the earth with ingenious mind' lit. ‘with 

searching of heart’ Leiden Iv i. 

The word following wb n Jnw is difficult to decipher; see note b on plate 17. l : or a 
moment 1 inclined towards the reading * Sny son of 1 , but it is far more likely that suy is a title 
of some kind. — The name of the author is compounded with the prenomen of Sesostris II 
(12 th. dyn.), and there is no reason for doubting that this gives us the actual date of the com¬ 
position; on the form of the name see A. Z. 44 (1907), 52—3. 

Recto 2—4. 

.1 Original apparently | 

He said\ — Would that I had words that are unknown, utterances that are strange , 
(expressed) in new language that has never occurred (before), void of repetitions-, not the utterance 
of past speech (r i), spoken by the ancestors. I squeeze out my body for (?) that which is in it, in 
the loosing (?) of all that I say. For what has been said is repeated , whenij) what has been said 

has been said\ there is no . the speech of men of former times , when (?) those of later 

times find it. 

2—4. The writer wishes that he had new and original things to say, not merely repeti¬ 
tions of what men of former generations had said before him. 

2. For Q 


sec the note on © 

Admonitions 7, 4; the ending -i is 

correct for the perfect participle passive, if hnw be taken, as Sethe suggests, as a singular. — 
Ogqq^j must be an adjective or participle parallel to hmm . Sethe well compares the words 

r-^g =x=, ‘all strange plants’ in the descriptive sentences accompanying the pictures 
of the Syrian plants brought back by Thutmosis III from his Asiatic campaigns, Urkunden IV 775. 

C f. ,001 -k-if'i 

'Back, thou messenger of every god! Hast thou come to this my heart of the living as a stran¬ 
ger?’ Harhotep 336; [Hd?] ^ ^ ^ SlfTTl ?□£ * ‘ he is.of 

heart, he seeks counsel for things that are strange like (= with the same facility as for) things 

1) Lacan j- the original has the same sign as that svhich determines '/mg, Pap. Kahun I, s; $ruy, ibid. 2, id; hfi! Print 9. iz: 
and the proper name of a forei^n^r ffn/!i L wf l Sittubt iso. 

ORrdincr. i- 

9 S 

G.iriliuer t The Aclmoniiioi^ of an l'-H>jitS:i^e. 

that arc intelligible {lit. ‘thsu in presence of which the heart is') 1 14 . /. IL 24 T 7 = Piehl* /user 
hih\ 111 74. Derived from this adjective must be, as Sethe points out, the word for ‘sayings' 

(perhaps 'original sayings') 


f ' \ ^ ,(j ‘hear ye me, and speak 

good concerning my words, do not say fic(?) concerning my sayings’ Vicuna 172, 7 (late). 

Jj ^?V | ‘repetitions’, only here in this sense, for which cf, below recto 7. The 

doubled ni is curious and Inexplicable, Whmyt in Shipwrecked Sailor 35. 104 is obscure, — 

~n _ JJ | ^ | for the hieratic writing see Plate 17 note e; has very nearly the form of 

that sign elsewhere in this text, and |, as it stands, can hardly be anything else. However sbt 
r Inw is unknown, and is open to the objection that line ought to be written Sethe may well 

be right in conjecturing ^ , <=»|^. 


0 . |.^ t A is not rare in the medical literature for 'to strain' ‘squeeze out’ some pre¬ 
paration through a doth, cf. Pap. Kahioi 6, 4, Ebcrs 19, 22; 63, 6; Hearst 2, 10; 3, 16: always 
accompanied by the words m hbsw except in Ebers 17, 18. 22. Tor shik the Berlin medical 
papyrus writes |1 x ^ {pap. Berlin 3038, 11,11; 16, 7; 20, 4. 5. 9) and in Admonitions to, 1 
link is probably a mistake for slink. Here metaphorically used for searching out the body 1 for 
such precious utterances as it may be able to produce. This interpretation is preferable, as Sethe 
points out, to that which I had proposed, ‘to purge' the body of the thoughts that oppress it. 
Sethe takes hr to mean ‘and’ here, but I think it is better to translate it 'for' 'because of. 

With *q~ Sethe hesitatingly compares the old verb ^^000 ‘to pass corn 
through a sieve’ (L, D. H 47; 71a; Pcrrot-Chipiez , fig. 28), but the determinative speaks strongly 
against this suggestion. On the other hand, the presence of™v» after the infinitive is unusual. — 
Instead of |Khwe might expect ddt-i nbt\ cf. however ^ below recto 6 and 

verso 5- 

The sentences introduced by must have sdven the reason why the words ot the 

ancestors were insufficient to serve the author’s purpose, but ibis reason is quite obscure. The 
writer indulges in play upon the word dd in much the same way as Pnsse 16 plays upon .4 
and we shall find this kind of literary artifice again below in II. 5—6. 

PARAGRAPH 2 {Recto 5—9). 

Recto 5—6. 

1} Fur the body as the seat of thought, cf, such expressions as tk hrt n hi (c* y Frae. S /?, i&, 196, 1 (t see the huIc 

below on recto 13; and especially the series of images in Bril. AJiu. 56(1 A . Z. 12 ((£74), 66. 



Not speaks one w/to has [already) spoken , there speaks one that is about to speak, and of 
whom another finds what he speaks f). Notf) a tale of telling afterwards : ‘they had mad elf) 
(it) before’. JVot a tale which shall say{i): 'it is searching after Ql) what hadf) perished ; it is 
lies] there is none who shall recall his name to others '. 

5—6. These words, which contain the same artifice of style already noted in 1 . 3, are 
exceedingly obscure. The end of the section suggests that the writer is there defending his 
work from anv imputation of untruth fulness that may later be cast upon it, and I therefore trans¬ 
late the first sentences as a refutation of a possible charge of plagiarism. There are however 
very serious difficulties connected with this view. Sethe thinks that the passage must be apho¬ 
ristic, the writer returning to the discussion of his own affairs only in the words ddi tin hfl mini 
( 1 . 6), and he proposes the alternative rendering: ‘nicht sagt ein Sagender (etwas), damit einer, 
der sagen wird, (es noch einmal) sage und ein andercr findc, was er sagte; nicht redet man fur 
den, der spater reden will’. My objection to this view is that 1 cannot connect it in any way 
with what follows. In the following philological notes I endeavour to support my own hypothesis, 
though without, I must confess, having great faith in its correctness. 

5. perhaps perfect participle active, sharply contrasted with the following verbal 

adjective ddtifi. Sethe doubts whether this is possible. — Gmy probably passive participle; the 
construction may be an extreme case of that discussed by Sethe, Vcrbum II §§ S99—902. — 
For -jc,I think we must emend ~ JL ~ | ^ in order to make this parallel to the following 

in which the plural strokes should perhaps be omitted. Here cannot be trans- 
lated ‘there is not’, but must be an example of the rare use of this negation to negative an 

isolated word or phrase. Cf. 


1111 ! 

5 a 1 



\ I iWAVk 


1. 2, and the sentence 




INI ‘Do not allow' him to drink 

o 1 iwavi \ i mvw. A o ■ \ -Hi '^ 1 —' , 0 

.nor wax, nor honey, nor sweet beer, for four days’ in an unpublished magical text in 

Turin; see too Steindorff, Kopt, Gramm} £ 460. 

For the construction kls dds in a relative sentence Sethe compares Rekhmtrc 10, 14. 
With the present reading kis dds (not kisn ddsn rs) w'e must render ‘not a tale which shall say’ 
i. e. not words which show on the very surface their inconsistency with the truth. 1 his seems 
however highly improbable. 

6. The verse-point after shitifi seems to be wrong, as it certainly is in several instances 
below. Shi ‘to mention’, cf. Shipwrecked Sailor 12S, and a less certain case, without dative but 
with rn ‘name’ as object, Petrie, Koptos 8, 6. 

Recto 6—7. 


S ++ 

■VvVwS 0 # 


& I 


ik i o 0 « 

( 7 )- 



I I L 

.* A <•> 

ail 1 

I have said (his in accordance with what I have seen, beginning with the first generation 
down (0 those who shall come afterwards ; they are like zvhai is pastQ ?). 

t) The letters tic arc here and in the two following instances written with r ligature which might possibly be read -ifti 1 , 

13 * 


CunliiiLT, The Admonitions uf + in Kj'y^ihn £hf^e, 

6—7. Th^ writer claims that his mornlizings are in accordance with a comprehensive 
view of all history, beginning at the first age of human existence and not excluding the future. 

6. For for which we expect see above on dd), L 3. — l ; or ht tpt see the 

note on Admonitions 12, 2. 

7. For ^^ , y cf- ^ ar - A by dos I] 10, where these words are used ot future kings; 
so too iy hr si of future days Prissc 9, 2. — The last words arc very obscure; the sense may 
possibly be that the writer can look into the future as easily as he can review past events. For 
st! r see Admonitions 12, 13 note. 

Recto 7—9. 


O (-> 


. \\ I — X * 

I I 

lVould thal I knew that of wluchif) others arc ignorant , even things that have never 
been related', in order that [ might say them, and my heart might answer mc\ that I might ex¬ 
plain to it concerning my sufferings , ami thrust aside for it the load that is upon my bach, {that 
I might speak') words {}':') about that which oppresses mc{ r), that I might express to it what I suffer 
through itif), thal / might say .... about my mood. 

7—9. After the pretentious boasting of lines 6—7 the return to the theme of line 2 
seems exceedingly naive. 

7. For see Eloquent Peasant Pi, 1 11 and Vogelsang's interesting note in 

his thesis Die Klagen dcs Pattern p. 30—31; for two more examples of the particle 3 , see 
Sinuhe 217. 260. — The writing Q vjv ' s curious: it has probably nothing to do with the 


other words ending in ,, that are discussed by Erman in bis edition of the LcbcnsmYtde p. 57 
and by Sethe in A. Z. 44 (1907), 85, but may be simply the past relative form with a super¬ 
fluous \\; this A may be due to the influence of the dual word kiwi, cf. A. Z. 40 (1902), 94 
ad finem 

S. Shd here clearly means ‘to explain’ ‘elucidate’ and is construed with r on the analogy 
of dd ‘to say’; 1 have been unable to find any other instance of this usage. — The masculine 
itfw ‘load’ ‘burden’, e.. g. Pap. Kahun i 5, 62; 30, 38. 42; Admonitions 1,2. — ^i(j ‘to repel' 

‘thrust aside’, cf. verso 3; so too metaphorically, of setting commands on one side, Uvkunden IV 546; 
Piankhi 143. Literally, ‘to thrust’ a person ‘aside’ 1 'otb. cd. Nav., 154, 3. ‘to push away’ food, 
Prissc i, lo. — The sentence beginning with haw is obscure; we should expect to find a verb 


parallel to win-i, ssr-i and the preposition m and the spelling sfn-u-ui arc inexplicable. Sfn is 
apparently an active participle, and has therefore nothing to do with the word sfn ‘mild ; it is 

l) Sethe considers this view very improbable, and prefers lo take -ny here loo as equivalent to ille pronoun ~S*i or ‘would 
that I knew, while others do not know it\ 



obviously the causative of the verb fu ‘to be infirm’ that is discussed in the note on Admoni¬ 
tions 9, 9; the only other instance of the causative is Siuit/te 161 ‘God hath shown me favour(?); 

so as to adorn the end of him whom he 

may he do Liu; likc<=>|l Q 
hatli afflicted’. 

' S probably a variant writing for - 5 — ^jj 1 , which seems to he nothing more than 
a choice word for‘to speak’; rf. -V- Bek h mere 2, 15; ^ I ^ q ^ /Vwv .. s ^ 

g * the heart of Re that knoweth what is, the tongue of Tanen that utterelh what 

exists’ Roclicm. lidfou I 273 (cd. op. cit. I 27.}); .. ,.}^ ^ ^ ^P£= _ 2 _ 1 1 1 ' '1 create for thee 

praise in uttering thy beauty’, op. cit. II 63. Cf. too 1 tongue’ and the wo rd 

‘utterance ’; the latter is not at all rare in Ptolemaic times, e. g. -7^ ^ ^ ‘ thy lieart 

rejoices at liearing our words’ Mar. Dead. Ill Cog. — perhaps ‘what I suffer through it' 

i. e. the heart. 

9. perhaps an exclamation of relief; an interjection (jjf expressive of pleasure 

is found Israel stele 22; Roclicm. Jidjon 1 267. 

The date at the end of line 9 is doubtless merely a memorandum of the scribe as to how 
far he had advanced in his work by a given date: such memoranda arc by no means uncommon, 
cf. Pop. Bologna 1094, to quote but one instance. 

(10) 0 


e i 



PARAGRAPH 3 (Recto 10 — 74). 

Recto 10. 

^ I 


W\W I -its 


a Origina] ha* 

/ am meditating on what has happened\ the things that have come to pass throughout the 
land\ Changes take place\ it is not like last gear. One year is more burdensome than the 
other. The fond is in confusion and has become waste Q); it is made into . 

10. occurs again below verso 1; cf. the epithet ^^)!K^^ 

'nieditating upon the plans of his mistress’ Urknndcn IV 46, where the verb is construed with m 
as here. A r k 3 seems to be very nearly synonymous with wiwt ‘to ponder’ or ‘plan’ cf. 1 ^ 

_0 2 ^ *.hut taking counsel with his heart’ Urknndcn IV 434; ^ 


ivwvws q £ * 

'l la! 

' = TJlP I I 

Q li)J! i ‘those who were in subjection to the lord of the two 

} Cf, xjj for tJ? 111 Shtp‘i't tiktd Sailor 139 . 


Gardiner, The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sa^e. 

latuls have planned and plotted rehellion' 1 Urkundcn IV t 38. — JJpr hi /?, see the nute on Ad¬ 
monitions 1, JJ. — For hpnv ‘changes’ I can find no exact parallel. 

| is the Coptic cwotcj; cf. Maximes (CAni 7, 6. 8, both times in contrast 

i Moi ' this year', and see Sethe’s remarks A. Z. 40 (1902), 95. The Ptolemaic spellings 
"O and Q see Br., / Porter hue h 1209. — For the metaphorical use of dus c(. Ad- 



monitions 4, 10, 14; and for s/ti the note on Admonitions 2, 11 may be consulted. 

Recto 11—12. 

(> 0 



^_u o r 1 (■ 

<? w 

I I i 




±<kJ>*rr,p,z- ”<k>= 


\\ x . . 1 



Cl * 

n Q 

oil. 5 * J o©i 

ftWAl @ 1 

i « 




[ 1 VJ 

9 ci 




“ & 

\ a 

— n e 9 
ra <2 m 11 




. . , o 

a Original a @1 


Rigid is cast outside. I Prong is inside the council-chamber. The plans of the gods arc 
violated ; their ordinances are neglected. The land is in distress. Mounting is everywhere. Towns 
and provinces arc in sorrow. Everybody alike is subjected to wrongs. Reverence , an end is 
put to it. The lords of quiet are disturbed. Morningf) occurs every day, and the facef) shrinks^) 
at what has happened. 

11. The cunverse of the first two sentences is expressed in the prophecy Cairo 25224 


(Daressv, Ostraca , p. 53, parallel text to Pap. Petersburg 1) [j ^("read ‘ Cie ^ = j 

For tuu ‘neglect' see Sethe^ Die Einsetzung des Vczicrs^ note 90. —- Jkfhrw is an inter¬ 
esting word of somewhat elusive meaning, which cannot always be rendered in English with the 
same term; it seems to be derived from the preposition hr and to signify 1 that which appertains 
to' or ds requisite for' somebody or something. A man applies to hrmself the epithet ^ 

'good of dealings in the house of his lord' {Munich Giyptotek 40) or claims to be 
^ I ® ~ 'whose intelligence performed his business' {l^eiden V 4; Brit. 


jUns. 572). A pyramid is 

1 ^ 1 
I <3 

‘superior in arrangement to all (other) 


places’ Louvre C 3. Irl mhru> means 'lo provide for’ someone; in a general sense, cf. Ur¬ 
ban den IV 656. 968. Especially of ‘government’, cf. \rt mhriv A, Urkundcn IV 60; snvd mkrw 
idbwy, Urkundcn IV 1075; government by the gods, cf. Lyon 93 'O thou Fnnead that art in 
Abydos. *z>- ^ ^ which governest the two lands'; so perhaps here 

]> ][ is rot certain lhn.t j/r/ is to be connected with hmi 



‘ordinances' 1 . Lastly hi m/tru 1 is commonly used for ‘providing fur' bodily wants, and so ultimately 
mhr it- comes to mean little mure than 'food' (cf. the Fnglisli ‘provisions’) and is sometimes s[>elt 
Jjjjvi {j (j ^ ( cf. Diim. ( 7 cogr. Znschr. IV 125. 

Sn-mnt is a compound word meaning ‘distress’ ‘calamity’ or the like. Cf (j ’ J O ^ 

.. tri 1^1 q Pv ‘Grief is in the Netherworld, distress in ... .. 

■ LJ^wW ./J 1 1 

Zauberspr.f. Mutter ?/. Kind 9, S; J ^ '^C'' ^ Stele of Tutankhamen 8 - Rec 

v\ „ 

V JVi. \\ J\ 

dc Trav. 29, 164; 1181 t\ "^W Ca!ro 2 5- 2 4 (= Uarcssy, Ostraca j». 5 |, where 

W W Jj jW/A 1 ! M _1 WAV A 

S ' s rea d); J [j[J ~ wv ^ 41 ’ n a very obscure context, L. D. II! 2511a, S; and finally 

Afcttcrniehstck 240. — For (j [^sz=>-?^^ see the note on Admonitions i, S; the 
lacuna is exactly of the shape of so that there can be no doubt as to the accuracy of 

the restoration. 


OgM cf the first quotation above in the note on sn-mnt \ Eloquent Peasant R 115 

X* f ll | 

mvw P i_ 

- | 

L I am laden with grief (similarly op. cit. fragm, Ill 13); parallel to 
htno ‘grief, Pup. Leiden 348, verso J2 > 5. As verb, perhaps in [| 0 ^1 [j jj <£^ c (|[| 




©c^H) ‘the thirstj r man groans (emend G^\ for tw) to himself in the desert’ L, D. Ill 

A J- 11 ft jO ^ 

140 b, 2. However (J nt l ^ c beginning of invocations in Toth. ed. Nav. 1 2, 1; 14, 1; 

102, 6 appears to be an exclamation of joy. 

Sfyt is that quality in things or people which commands respectful admiration; ‘reverence’, 
the word which I here use to render sjyt^ is properly speaking too subjective in its meaning. — 
Edit si r ‘to annul’ ‘put a stop to' cf ^(||1 Bibi. Nat. 20, 24 (hymn to Osi¬ 

ris); similarly Horan he 6 decree 20. 37. 

Nbw sgr) ‘the lords of quiet’ probably a circumlocution for ‘the gods'. A T b sgr is an 
epithet of Osiris in Busins (Br., Diet. Gcogr. 757), and it is perhaps Osiris who is so called in 
Eloquent Peasant B /, 27. 29. Cf. too the epithet ^|^^'d? ^ Urknndcu IV 1031, 

As the last quotation shows, sgr must mean ‘quiet' ‘peace’ or the like, a sense for which we 
may compare fj <? * 5^5 o - ® ft JL |fj) Sum he R > 8, and the word sg discussed by me A. Z 42 
(> 9 ° 5 ). 32 - 

-WvVVX * p 

m n_P| | | occurs again below verso 2. If the word has here its usual meaning ‘morn¬ 
ing’ (as in m nhpw , Admonitions ti, j), it is dear that the sentence nhpw hr hpr r* nb must 

be closel}' connected with what follows, since ‘morning takes place every da}’’ in meaningless as 
an isolated clause. So Sethe, for whose interpretation sec below. If this view be not taken 
— it should be noticed that the neighbouring clauses arc all short and independent of one another — 
the only possible alternative is to connect uhptv with the phrase pg 0 gjj j 4 to care for‘ Israel 

stele 13; /user. ?u lhe liter* Char 29, 12, 13; Pap* Turin 147 > cob 2, 9, and to translate ‘cares 

come about every tlav\ The determinative seems however to make against this view. 

For Inbh see the note on Admonitions 9, 2. The meaning which seemed to result from 
the examples there quoted was 1 to swerve, shrink back, recoil' especially from fright. For 

]) Sclhe hoivcvcr points oul that ilic genitive following mJkp-tt* is cUc where ;lIiva)& an objective: genitive, ami therefore prefers to 
render h/JJfj v-s>t 'care for their/, i. ■e, ‘their cult 1 . 


G.irtlirier, The Atliuomtiuiis uf an l!^) r |>tian 

;i further instance (with omitted n as in msh for nrsnh) rf. Idp. Turin 26 col 2, 1 hu: u\z\ 
<=> ^ ^ i ‘they shrink from filling their mouthsf?)’, in an obscure context, Sethe proposes 

here to render: 'erery day there comes a morning (i, e. one from which some improvement might be 
hoped), and yel it returns back 10 its former state*. 1 very much doubt whether tnbh can be 
used In the sense here suggested, though the determinative kA in three passages tells somewhat 
in Invnur of \l Is it not better to render 4 the face shrinks at what has happened*, comparing 
thr note on Admonitions i, 9 for the use of hr* 

Recto 12-13. 

1 _J<= 



(' 3 ) 5 ?‘ 


^—m .c • 






.0 6 


O ~4 


<=> [1 

! I 



@ ‘ 

1 speak concerning ;?(?)* Aly limbs arc heavy-laden. / amQ) distressed because of (r) wy 
heart. It is painful (?) to hold my peace concerning it. Another heart would bend (under such 
a burden::), A brave heart in evil case is the companion (?) of its lend, 

12. Dit r^ cf. verso 4; Urkunden IV 271* 353; Ret* de Trav. 26, 11 footnote, — For 
hr-sn we ought probably to read In-s. 

13, For the writing for compare Eloquent Peasant B /, 70 with R 115. and 

ibid, B 7 , 276 with B 2 , 33, 

For snni see the note on Admonitions 4, 12, If snni r A be correct wi must be taken 
as the subject, just as sw in the next sentence appears to be the subject of u*hd\ for this con- 
struction see Scthe, Verbum H g 173; A. Z. 44 (190S), S3; and especially I 0 Ji 4 ^ 
Sinuhe B 31; ^ ^ ~ ^ \ Shipwrecked Sailor 134. — ’because of’, not ‘in’ (Sethe). 

Whd ‘to suffer’, see the note on Admonitions 10, 12; below in 14 and verso 4 absolu¬ 
tely, cf. yS | 4T ^r 1 , — . Id - a A 5} S * know that thou suffercst when 

it (Truth) perishes in Egypt' Sk/c Ramcses IV, 14 — A. Z. 22 (1SS4), 39. Apparently transitive 


below verso 5; cf. Pap. med. Berlin 3048, 13, 4 ‘His clothes arc too heavy for him, —i— @ Q 

3 JM. he cannot bear many clothes'. Here, according to Scthe, rtc must be taken 

as anticipating the following infinitive hip (cf. the use of J<v in f ^ ^ Cahcri 3), 

and whd must mean ‘painful’; cf. the similar use of wr ‘to be ill’ in the phrase nir-wsi ‘how 
painful it is". — Hip Id hr ‘to keep silence about’ a thing, cf. Urkunden IV 47; Louvre A 60; 

Turin Lnesoug* .4 ^ e A ~ ^ £ k 'k T; and J^ 0 often - 

A x metaphorically, only here; for the spelling Settle compares — Urkunden 

IV 3S5. — In the last sentence Sethe proposes to understand sn-nw in the sense of‘companion’; 
that this is the real meaning is proved by Shipwrecked Sailor 41 — 2 ‘I spent three days alone 
G with my heart as my (only) companion'. For nb ‘lord’ ‘possessor’ in 

reference to ib ‘heart’, cf. Pn'sse 16, S. 





Recto 13—H. 

tkSa>«)kTlh«s»*°/ ¥ 

a Erroneously omitted on plate iS, 

1 I 

T Sf i » 

- '$ 

Would that / had a heart able to suffer! Then I would rest upon it. / would load it 

with words of . I would ward off from it my malady. 

13. Hi .....hi, see the note on Admonitions 12, 2. 

14. Whd must here be infinitive, in spite of the final <?, and must have the nuance of 

meaning found in the passage from the Berlin med. Pap. quoted above, namely 'to bear’ ‘endure’ 
suffering, not merely ‘to suffer’ passively. — }rt shty, cf. L. D. Ill 140b, 2; Munich , Antigua- 
riam 38; Toth. ed. Nav. 64, 42 (variants). 

The signs following 

L 2 i i 

□ 1 

are not easy to read, but if be correct, it is preceded 
by a small sign like (2. The emendation itpl no seems probable from the parallelism. — For 

P i i i 0,16 ‘ s tempted to conjecture miir ‘misery’, but we have then the difficulty that this 
clause would very nearly contradict that which follows it. In any case the last sentence is strange; 
the preceding context would lead one to expect drf ni mn-i ‘that it might ward off from me 
my malady!' 

PARAGRAPH 4 (Verso 1 —6). 

Verso 1 


oWOo^l is 

He said to his heart. Come , my heart, that J may speak to thee, and that thou mayest 
answer for me my words, and mayest explain to me what is in the land . 

]. ^ after an imperative cf. Destruction of Men (Sethos), 3. 16; Kuban stele 11; Plank hi 86 1 : 

later ^ n [|(|^ Pap. Bibl. Nat. 198, 2, 17; Mayer A, 2, 18; see too Junker, Grammatik § 245. 
The last words ntiw lid pth are quite incomprehensible to me. 

Verso 1 —3. 


□ S 

@ I 





9 I 


□ G 

IT) ©t 1 1 

)} Erman still connects nf in Wtni 45 wiih Ihis piHiclt (A\ Z. 43 [1906], 24): 
those -instances otherwise than ] have doue m Free* S. B . A . e 9 > 2 . 351 — 1 . 

Girdi trer. 

1 cia however see no reason Tor explaining 


Gar di tier, t he AdmobiLicms of an Kgy[>liah 


( 3 ) 







!g 1 




o\\ i 

)p I 

A_U 0 


1W Ji- 

«WW\ Vi a w Jl 

>V,-AVv \\ ^U 


/ am meditating on what Jim happened. Afflictions have entered in today; in the morn¬ 
ing, .. . have not passed away. All people ore silent concerning it. The entire land is 

in a great stir. 'There is nobody free from wrong; all people alike do it. Hearts are sad. He 
who gives com mauds is as one who receives commands; both of them arc content. 

1. A’kly, see above on recto io. — Ihw again below 4; see Hr, U'orfcrb. Suppl. 15—j6; 
ilnu is certainly identical with fO ^ 

2. Nhpw , see above recto 12, note. Here, if 'cares’ were really the meaning, one might 

understand the sentence to mean 'cares, (they) have not passed away since the ancestors’, dr drw 
then being an equivalent of Urknnden IV 429. Scthe’s proposal is how¬ 

ever far superior: he takes nhpw , not as ‘cares’ parallel to Um\ but as ‘morning' i. e. ‘tomorrow’, 
contrasted with min ‘today’. In this case drdrw is the rare word written .J 2 , ^ ^ , 

in Lebensmhdc 117. In spite of the strange determinatives this word must signify an evil quality 
cf. (|(] o ^(read /j ^ p^ = j<=» |^^ ^ Saltier IV 3, 2. 

Shr <-3 ]>erhaps in a sense similar to that of the English slang expression ‘to be in a 
great state', i. e. in great perturbation. — The determinative of 

is probably correct, nn fit 

Q 11 

here meaning literally ‘nobody’ 

Snm . see 011 Admonitions 5. — Oil hr, see SeLhc, Die liinsetzungdcs Veziers , note 144. 

o.~~ ra 

.. ■ “ il must mean ‘the heart of both of them is contented', that is to sav, both the 
ruler and the ruled arc indifferent as to their miserable lot; ^ is doubtless the suffix of the 
3rd. person dual; the preceding * 
omitted or emended to 1 1 ■. 

is inexplicable, and as Sethe suggests, should either be 

Verso 3—4, 

.1 as below 1. 6. 

People rise m (he morning lo {find) it (so) daily , and (yet) hearts thrust it not aside. 
The state of yesterday therein is like today , and resembles it because of nmchf). Men’s faces 
are stotiJf), there is no one wise ( enough ) to know, there is no one angry (enough) io speak out. 
People rise to suffer every day. 

3—4, The thought of the callousness and submissive ness of men to their own and other 
people’s troubles is here further developed and elaborated. 



3. 'I'hc sufli n s and the absolute pronoun si must refer to the general state of affairs. 
— Hr sn rs n is explained by Sethe as a circumstantial clause explaining the previous sen¬ 
tence; n <s 1 is however rather difficult and dubious. 

In the following sentence Sethe takes hr to be the preposition. I prefer to understand 
it as l face“ and to compare the sentences mentioned above recto 12, note, ad fin cm. — /Jr! 
seems to be a '/.r/dtuvor, unless one may compare ^ ^ which is apparently used of 
the baneful properties of a herb Zauberspr. f. Mutter it. Kind 2, 4. 

The meaning “ °^ £=> ^ ‘to know’ ‘perceive’ appears to have been first recognized by 
Sethe. Transitively ‘to know’ a thing cf. Rekhmere 7, 9; Louvre C 240; Prisse 2, 3 1 . More often 

\ I 1 

adjectivally used in the sense ‘skilled in’ or the like: cf. for example 

® ‘whose hearts are skilled in seeing excellence’ Piehl, /user. Hier. Ill, 45; 
‘commander of troops, skilled in warfare’ Mar. Abyd, I 53; 




Karnak, Temple of Chons\ r, ^ 7 ' P [ t Q 1 ^* w ‘ se in knowledge’ /blast. 1 2, 4. — Ssi 

as verb, e. g. Shipwrecked Sailor 139. 

23 ? ‘angry’, cf. the word in the Pyramidtexts; a good instance of dud 

‘anger’ at a later date, will be found in Sint I 224. For the spelling here one may compare 
Ebers 102, j o; an unpublished magical papyrus in Budapest contains several more examples of it. 
In Ebers the word dud seems to refer to madness, and this might possibly be the sense here, 
where dnd is contrasted with rk. However it is more likely that the opposition is rather between 
the cool thinker and the quick-tempered fanatic; one might quote Juvenal’s faeit indignatio versum . 

I)}f n , see the note on recto 12. — For the construction of dwi see Sethe, Verbnm II 

S 555 d'V. 

Verso 4—5. 

^^0 ffi 
Ci 1 


£Zi * 

( I I 





r ^ 




> > 


o o 


-E=-**=3 J1 


J«Si^.Xrr:T5JJ- / -' J 


I I 

a Original jJv b Original inserts 

^—ll 1 ^- 

both litre and in grg below we onght probably To read 

after S c The sign read 

<1 See note c. 


on the plate may well be o\ i for 

1 i 1 

r) This instance demands some further comment. The *p-' lsSi C c runs: ‘The Yiiier caused his children lo be summoned 



z 3 *=^ J 



when he had perceived the 

manner of men, aod their nature revealed itself to The usual translation is ‘when he had finished the instruction of men 1 . The 

determinative of VjE here tells heavily against the meaning 'to finish', Nor does jAr mean 'instruction* for which sbkyt i* the Egyptian word. 
Lastly, however we may understand m Hi hr/ y the word* biVsn ‘their character' must be parallel U> j hr rrit(\ for hit see on Admoni¬ 
tions i z i 1. 

r 4 * 

Gardiner, The Ailrnujiilions of in TCpyptiin Sage, 


Long and heavy is my malady. The poor man has no strength to protect himself) from 
him who is stronger than himself\ It is pain to keep silence about things heard. It is misery 
to answer one who is ignorant. 7 a find fault with a speech breeds hostility(i). 'The heart 
does not accept the truth* The reply (?) to a speech (?) is not tolerated (?). All that a man loves 
is his {own) utterance, Rimy one puts his trust in . Rectitude has abandoned speech Q). 

4 — 5. The writer complains that he has no one in whom he can confide his woes, as 
those who know their cause wilfully shut their eyes to the truth and refuse to listen 

4- The emendation nhmf sw is based upon the common epithet nhm mTtr nr wsr rf 
c. Petrie, Dernier eh 8* — Ih\ see above verso 1 note* 

5, IJsf is here used in its familiar meaning 4 to criticize' 1 find fault witlT (Setlic); so 
especially of criticizing ur correcting letters* — The substantive snn has here perhaps the sense 
of "answer’ 'rejoinder', as apparently in 0 ^ 1 'Copy of the reply to this com* 

inand’ Sinahe 204. — IVhd has here apparently its transitive sense: see above recto 13 note. 

The construction of »ir ub si ts-f is difficult. For mr one experts mri, but see the note 
on recto 3. Sethe is doubtless right in translating ‘all that a man loves is his (own) utterance’, 
i. e. he will pa; 1 no attention to anyone’s words except his own. 

Grg hr, compare Admonitions 5, 4. — Hibb cf. ^ J J!^ Eloquent Peasant B /, 107 
in an obscure context: the determinative, which 1 cannot identify with an)- known hieroglyph, 
looks as though it might represent the jaws of the hippopotamus { hib ). 


‘to leave’ ‘abandon" cf. 

A • 


Jj ‘Enter in to him, do not 

| ^ ^ ‘Thy ka is with thee, he 



leave him’ Ebers 40, 7; 41, 21; 42, 5; h -1 j 

does not leave thee’ Urkuuden IV 500 (similarly ibid. IV 117); (j 

A J| p 1 A well-born man who does it (sdl, “evil”), his (own) father abandons him in 
the lawcourt’ Ayrton-Currelly-Weigall, Abydos III 29. Sethe however doubts the transitive sens*' 
here, and thinks of Jj 'to run’ [Pyramidtexts, e. g. [40. 253), rendering ‘die Richtigkeit der 
Rede ist weggelaufen’. However bt is not found in this sense outside the I’yramidtexts, unless 
it is preserved in the word Sinufie B 154; Pap, Ka linn 35, >3. 

Verso 5—6. 

a Original (2, as above I. 3, 

/ speak to thee , my heart - answer thou me.- A heart that is approached docs not keep 
silence. Behold the affairs of (he slave are like {those of) the master. Manifold is that which 
weighs upon thee. 

5 —6. Since other people will not listen to him, the author turns to his heart, whose 
interests are bound up with bis own, and who is forced to share his burden with him. 



6 . Sethe is doubtless right in taking fih as a passive participle, though I prefer the ren¬ 
dering ‘approached’ to his ‘angegriflfrn— Tire translation of the last sentence is also due to 
Seihe, who points out that is the late Egyptian writing of the verb, if the spelling be correct. 


The collection of words, the gathering together of sayings, the quest of utterances with 

ingenious mind, made by the priest of Heliopolis, the., Khekheperre-sonbu, called Oukhu. 

He said: — Would that 1 had words that are unknown, utterances that are strange, (ex¬ 
pressed) in new language that has never occurred (before), void of repetitions; not the utterance 
of past speech(??), spoken by the ancestors. 1 squeeze out my body for(?) that which is in it, in 
the loosing(?) of all that I say. For what has been said is repeated, when(?) what has been said 

has been said; there is no.the speech of men of former times, \vhen(?) those of later 

times find it. 

Not speaks one who has (already) spoken, there speaks one that is about to speak, and 
of whom another finds what he speaks(?). Not(?) a tale of telling afterwards: ‘they had made(?) 
(it) before’. Not a tale which shall say(?): ‘it is searching after(??) what had(?) perished; it is 
lies; there is none who shall recall his name to others’. ] have said this in accordance with 
what I have seen, beginning with the first generation down to those who shall come afterwards; 
they are like what is past(??). Would that 1 knew that of which(?) others are ignorant, even 
things that have never been related: in order that 1 might say them, and my heart might answer 
me; that 1 might explain to it concerning my sufferings, and thrust aside for it the load that is 
upon my back, (that I might speak) words(??) about that which oppresses me(?), that I might 
express to it what I suffer through it(?), that I might say .... about my mood. 

I am meditating on what has happened, the things that have come to pass throughout 
the land. Changes take place; it is not like last year. One year is more burdensome than the 

other. The land is in confusion and has become waste(?); it is made into.. Right 

is cast outside. Wrong is inside the council-chamber. The plans of the gods are violated; their 
ordinances are neglected. The land is in distress. Mourning is everywhere. Towns and pro¬ 
vinces arc in sorrow. Everybody alike is subjected to wrongs. Reverence, an end is put to it. 
The lords of quiet are disturbed. Morningf?) occurs every? day, and the face(?) shrinks(?) at what 
has happened. I speak concerning it(?). My limbs are heavy-laden. I am(?) distressed because 
of(?) my heart. It is painful (?) to hold my peace concerning it. Another heart would bend 
(under such a burden??). A brave heart in evil case Is the companion(?) of its lord. Would 
that I had a heart able to suffer! Then I would rest upon it. I would load it with words of 
. I would ward off from it my malady. 

He said to his heart. Come, my heart, that I may speak to thee, and that thou mayest 

answer for me my words, and mayest explain to me what is in the land.. . . . . 

I am meditating on what has happened. Afflictions have entered in today; in the morning, . . . 
..... have not passed away. All people are silent concerning it. The entire land Is in a great 


Gjirdincr, The Admonitions of an E^jfuiart Sage 

stir. Then: is nobody free from wrong; all people alike do it. I karts arc sad. lie who gives 
commands is as one wlio receives commands; both of them arc content. People rise in the 
morning to (find) it (so) daily, and (yet) hearts thrust it not aside. The state of yesterday therein 
is like today, and resembles it because of much(?), Men's faces are stolid(r), there is no one 
wise (enough) to know, there is no one angry (enough) to speak out. People rise to suffer every 
day. Long and heavy is my malady. The poor man has no strength to protect himself from 
him who is stronger than himself. It is pain to keep silence about things heard. It is misery 
to answer one who is ignorant. To (inti fault with a speech breeds liostility(r). The heart 
does not accept the truth. The reply (?) to a speech (?) is not tolcratcd(P). All that a man loves 

is his (own) utterance. Everyone puts Iris trust in. Rectitude has abandoned speech(r). 

1 speak to thee, my heart; answer thou me. A heart that is approached does not keep silence. 
Behold the affairs of the slave are like (those of) the master. Manifold is that which weighs 
upon thee. 


The opening paragraphs of the new London text arc something of a novelty. The few 
samples of the Egyptian Wisdom-literature hitherto known conform, with hardly an exception, to 
a'uniform pattern, the ethical or philosophical issue with which they deal arising out of a brief 
introductory narrative of a dramatic kind 1 . Here however the usual dramatic preface is 
abandoned in favour of a very quaint and unexpected confession of the author’s literary aspira¬ 
tions. His craving for an original theme and for choice, unhackneyed words is confided to us 
with a good deal of naive tc\ and it is amusing to note that the only touch of originality that the 
writer shows consists of the very words wherein he seems to cast doubts upon his powers in 
that respect. The two sections which contain this candid revelation of the writer's ambition 
are very artificially and obscurely expressed, and it is not at all easy to make coherent and con¬ 
sistent sense out of them. After the hesitating and diffident tone of the first words the pom¬ 
pous boast that the reflexions in the book rest upon a broad survey of all history cumes as a 
surprise. If thus we are unable to obtain a clear conception of the author’s pretensions from 
his own lips, yet the tide at the beginning gives us a fairly just estimate of his actual achieve¬ 
ment. This title describes the work as a collection or anthology of wise sayings ingeniously put 
together by a HeHopolitnn priest named Khekheperre-sonbu. 

When in the third paragraph the writer readies the main topic of his book, namely the 
wickedness of men, the corruption of society and his own grief and despondency thereat, lie at 
once lapses into the conventional language of Egyptian pessimism, It is for this reason that the 
text serves so admirably as a philological commentary to the Admonitions. It might he em¬ 
ployed almost equally well to illustrate the ideas of the Berlin papyrus containing the dialogue 
between an existence-weary mortal and bis soul. Just as there the unhappy hero turns to his 

i) The only real exception seems to be the Song of the Harper in the lomb ol Vcferholep anti in l J ap. Harris sioo. A particular 
variety of this literary genus is the kind of composition known to the Egyptians a 1 teaching\ in which the dramatic situation 

father instructing his son N at a scribe his pupil) is summarily indicated by ihc title of the workj cf ihe Jfntirtfficm $/ Am*** tonnes I. 


1 1 1 

soul for help and solace, so here the writer makes an appeal to his own heart. I he refrain of 
the Lebensm'ude ‘To whom shall l speak today?' has Its counterpart on the London writing-board 
in the authors denunciation of the indifference that is shown to his complaints. In the Introduc¬ 
tion to tills book I have called attention to the points of contact between the Admonitions and 
the Lebcnsmude ; on comparing the resemblances there noted with the considerations here adduced, 
it will be seen that there are good grounds for classing the Admonitions , the Lebensmtide and 
the new London text together as a historically-related group of texts. 

Now this conclusion is not without a certain significance in connection with the problem as 
to the age of the Admonitions , for the text of the London writing-board can be definitely dated 
back as far as the reign of Sesostris II 1 . Thus there seems to be a slightly increased likelihood 
that the Admonitions are to be reckoned among the literary products of the Middle Kingdom. 
However there is an essential difference to be noted between the pessimism of the London frag¬ 
ment and that of the Admonitions. Egypt had, by the time that Sesostris II came to the throne, 

long since recovered its old prosperity, and there is no evidence for any social or political distur¬ 
bances at this flourishing moment in the Twelfth Dynasty. It follows that the pessimism of 

Khekheperrescmbu is of a quite general and literary quality, at the most an unconscious echo 
of that troubled period preceding the rise of the earlier Theban Empire which had first tinged 
Egyptian literature with melancholy. There can, on the other hand, be no question that the 
pessimism of Ipuwer was intended to be understood as the direct and natural response to a real 
national calamity; the references in the Admonitions to Asiatic aggression in the Delta and to 
the devastation of the land through civil war leave no room for doubt on this point. But, 
although the Admonitions have an indubitable historical background, it need not be too hastily 
assumed that their composition was contemporary with the events to which they allude; historical 
romance was always popular in Ancient Egypt, and there is no inherent reason why the Ad¬ 
monitions even if referring to the conditions of the Tenth Dynasty, should not have been written 
under the Twelfth. 

This is, in fact, the conclusion to which the balance of evidence would seem to incline, 
but for the historical difficult)' that was emphasized in the Introduction. But is this difficulty* 
reallv so great after all? It should be observed that if the Admonitions really refer to the 
Hyksos invasion, Ipuwer has been guilty rather of understating than of overstating his case. There 
is no indication in the Admonitions that a rival monarchy had been established In the North by 
Asiatics, nor is any due given us as to the extent or the duration of the encroachments 
of foreign hordes in the Delta therein alluded to. Moreover — and this is an important point 
entirely overlooked in the Introduction — there does exist some evidence that the internal dis¬ 
ruption ol Egypt after the VI th. Dynasty was taken advantage of bv its Eastern neighbours. 
Golenischeff thus describes a passage contained in the still unpublished Papyrus no. I of St. Peters¬ 
burg*: ' De la page 7 commence sans interruption un autre texte dont h: commencement memo 
ni'est jusqu'a present fort embarassanl. Je vois seulement qu'il est aussi parfois cntrecoupe de 
difTerents pnjeeptes. A la ligne 11 de la memc page nous trouvons la phrase suivante ecrite en 
rouge: Cela est dit par le porteur de Parc*. Apres cela on mentionne les iimu-Xcsi 

niauvais Asiatiques. 

Le texte fort embarassant et assez endommage des 

a A. Z, 14 (1876), 109 

l) See The note on recto I, 

] i 2 

Gardiner, The AdmnniliouS in f an h'^ypli111 EsA^e. 

pages VIII ot IX nc me punnet pas den saisir exact omen t 1 e sens. J'v trouve settlement sou vent 
employes les mots: asiatiques, combattre, ville, soldats, 1’Kgypte tin nortl, les ennemis — cc qiti 
scntbfe pronver, quit s'ttgil dc quclquc narration sur ime incursion tCAsialiqites dans f Hgyptc du 

fl^dc ta VIII* 

ricnl value of this text may of course be small; but it seems to hint that in tin: days of a king 
Akhthoes, possibly the same as the ruler mentioned in the tombs of Siut, the Delta was ravaged 
by Asiatics. We know further that the king Amcncmmcs 1 built a strong wall on the East of 
the Delta to keep back the liodumsh These defensive constructions may well have been merely 
the restoration of more ancient fortifications due to some Eliaraoh of the Old Kingdom; but that 
the first monarch of the Twelfth Dynasty undertook this work at a time when so much reorga¬ 
nization was needful throughout the entire length of the land 1 2 3 shows that he considered it a 
vital and pressing precaution. From tills alone one might conclude that the Asiatics had not 
abstained altogether from interference in the Delta under the weaker rulers of the intermediate 
period. In the newly-discovered Temple of Deir cl Baharr scenes depicting battles with Asiatics 
have been found 4 . In a word, there is scanty but indisputable evidence that already in the period 
between the Vltli. and XII th. Dynasties Egypt had been liable to periodic incursions on the part 
of the Beduins of the Sinaitic Peninsula and of Palestine. 

More evidence than this is hardly necessary to account for the references to the Asiatics 
in the Admonitions ,. and the historical objection to an early date for that work therefore dis¬ 
appears. -Still in spite of all that has been said, there remains the possibility that Sethe may be 
right in his opinion that the work was composed at the end of the Hyksos period. 1 am myself 
now strongly inclined to adopt the view that the Admonitions are a product of the XII th. Dynasty, 
that prolific period of Egyptian literary activity; but I must conclude by reminding my readers that 
oil this point we have no means of attaining anything more than a strong presumptive probability. 

dynastic V '1 he histo- 

nord. On y (ronve anssi Ic nont dc yereti [IT jj [] Q~| 

[) The italics arc mine, 

2) ll wis called ittbw hiS Mhe wall of the l J iiuce p ; cf. Sinuhe* SC 4;; Dartssy, Ostraia That this wall was butli by Anm- 

nemmes I is clear from the latter text, which is a duplicate of the second half of the above-mentioned l'e ten bury papyrus, and contain a 
pvtfrvcntum prophecy of the happy era to be inaugurated by king Imny, Tor a translation, by lUnke, of this text> see Gressmann, Alt' 
orientalise he 7 *exte sum Allen Testament, p. 2O4 ff. 

3) See the inscription of ChDeniothes, passim. 

4) Naville, Tie Si Jett. Dynasty 7 "erttple at Deb el \ 14, ■— - There is one more point which 1 mention <iuite tentatively; 

in the Twelfth Dynasty the title 

* Asiatic* for a particular kind of servant [especially in the temples) becomes very frequent; were 

such servants really always of Asiatic birth! or docs the name dale from a tin\e when the Egyptians were at war with the Asiatics and 
utilized their prisoner!; as domestic slaves ? 


P, S, line 5. It should lx; noticed that the Hgyptian future tense /f if r sdm does not 
occur once in this long- descriptive passage. On the other hand the Cairo writing-hoard 25224, 
which really contains a prophetic text (see j>. 112, footnote 2), constantly employs that construction. 
This difference between the two texts is striking and significant. 

P. !S, line 12: for transgress read conform to. 

P. g, line 23: for North land read Lower Egypt. 

P, 12, lines 12. 11 from bottom: for North-land read Lower Egypt. 

P. 15, line 22: for transgress read conform to. 

P. 20, lines 4. 5: dele the parenthesis ‘(for which we might expect Upyt c-nuu)’; see p. 100. 

23. footnote, line 2. However the writing t|(jjp^ occurs already in the 12th. Dyn., 
of. L. O. II 136I1, 14 (Scrunch stele). 

P. 26, line 2i: for Nr read Hr. 

P. 26, last line. The examples quoted are hardly applicable: in Sinn he 291 the right 
reading is TnJjpfL; in the Ebers passages sbt is probably an adjective. 

P. 29, lines 15. 16. The last sentence must surely be translated: The timid man does not 
distinguish himself from those who arc cautions-, for hr ‘prepared’ see now A. Z. 45 (1909), 74, 
footnote 2. This alteration may require a modification of Sethe s view of the first sentences in the 
section; the anxiety and fear that reign throughout the land seem to he its chief topic. 

P. 31. line iS. The real meaning of muh here is doubtless ‘to arrange’. 

P. 36, note on nhbt 4, 3. Hrman suggests Tragekind , (lit. children of the neck), or as we 
should say, ‘children in arms’. Probably that was the interpretation of the scribe responsible for 
this variant; but which of the two. nhbt or nht, was the reading of the archetype is hard to decide. 

P. 40, line 3: for agreable read agreeable. 

P. 49, line 4: tor destroyed read suppressed. 

P. 61, line 19. Hrman proposes zvdpto ‘butlers’ for the faulty word at the beginning of 
the section, This may very well be the correct reading, though ivdpzv is never written out in 
full except in the Pyranudtcxls (cf. Pyr. 120. 124). Perhaps the simplest course is to emend 0 
to 5, which would give the same reading in its usual N. K. form. 

P. 67, line 4. 11. Mailer thinks that the determinative of inbh in the Eloquent Peasant 
may be a hedgehog. This seems quite a likely suggestion, and if tnbh were the name of that 
animal, the sense of the verb derived from it would not be difficult to account for. At all events 
my conjecture that the determinative depicts a gazelle cannot be upheld. 

P. 69, line 1 y. for rca d 

P. S7. note on 13, 9. Perhaps after all harm may here be simply a variant of hwy 
■steersman’; Hrman points out that the reference to slaps in the first section where hnno occurs 
would be very appropriate, il w<‘ render Is there a good steersman, then ships sail upstream , etc. 

I • .h Ml 111 r ■ 

I A 


i t enclitic particle, 1GO. 
ibxo ‘to brand' cattle, 6 y. 
ibxo 'Elephantine', 34. 
ihzu ‘afflictions' (cf. ifnu) t 106. 
itp ’to load', abbreviated writing- 
off 104* 

itp 'coffer', 62. 
i/p-u* ‘load' 20. 100. 
it-t 'bed', 89. 

Vi// 1 plague!/.W-/ ‘baneful influence 
see id- re, ld-t. 
iid-f 'drag-net', S7. 

Utt-w 'grief 1 'groans', 103. 
tot*u* t exclamation of joy, 103. 
iii u hit ‘pilot 1 , S3. 
ho, _f\ 2, as auxiliary verb, 80—Si. 
ho ‘evils \ 'wrongs’, 83 (cf. J02. io6j, 
hvy-t ‘quarter’ of a town, 49—50* 
ho-ms liable to a but' ‘exceptio¬ 
nable 1 , 22. 113. 

hvh ‘to load 1 , 'carry' n burden, 40, 
/Wy(?), followed by s?i* r 35. 
hvd'Xo separate', construction of, 41. 
fbi ‘to thirst 1 transitively, 28. 

\bh-i ‘stone of Yebhet', 3J. 

'//no, in compound names, 93. 
tm{w) * to grieve', 35, 

in-yt meaning unknown, 33. 

iu-'iv 'the produce' of trees, 33. 
hid 'calamity 1 ‘misery 1 , 43. 
ir 'to make offerings', 42. 
hy t in place of a suffix, 25. 
irthu, a kind of fruit, 34. 
hlhi > "mourning 1 , 2]* 103. 
ihio ‘afflictions' 106. 

///, interjection, 101, 
hy-ivt 'rags', 31. 
itrd hni-U Upper Egypt, 34. 
ith ‘to draw in' the drag-net, 86; 'to 
use the drag-net in' a place, 86. 

N.B, Tlic numbers refer 10 ^ujr£S. 

id-xv 'plague 1 , 25. 

id-t, of malign influences, 25, 

idr herd; 67. 

tid 'to be palef?) 1 , 23. 
t 7 v-t ‘cattle; spelling of 42. 
oih-f 'corn; 49, 
oitho, as liair-oM, 62, 
oid ‘to be few', 30. 
oid to perceive', 8 r. 

01 diL' 'jars , 40. 

o'k 'to know 1 'perceive; 307. 

</ft-7i 1 ‘heap* in the phrase ah duxo 
‘a wealthy man’ (cf T xoo) r 25. 

I / i meaning of, 33. 
xoixo-to dong ago 1 , 54. 
xoi-t 'road'; /// hr xoid 'to direct' 
a person, 35. 

t chi ‘to thrust aside 1 , *00. 
wt&d 'priestly service', 77■ 
xobd n 'refectory' ‘place of em¬ 
balmment' ‘tomb; 26. 
wbd-t 'burning 1 ‘burn 1 , 53* 
u ^-^'/‘specifications' ‘schedules', 48. 
7011 VV to pass by '‘neglect' (cfoTonc), 
S3. 102. 

7 vn(t 'to adorn - vases (with flowers r), 



tiv, spelt , 88; hieratic writing 

of, 3 ^ 

mhui-yt ‘repetitions; 9S. 

Ti'hn ‘to overthrow' a wall, 55. 

71 *hi 'to cut coriY 'hew stone'* 45* 

tvhi meaning obscure, 59. 

w{jd 'to suffer; 7;. 104 io; T :oS. 
u>} 'to fall out’, of the hair, 62. 
wit f<stH/i 'to chew natron 1 , 76* 
xvib; irt zoib ‘to reply ; 86. 
loir 'to be wauling' ‘lacking', 24, 

zed to exert' violence etc., 85. 
xvdp-xo 'butlers 1 , \ 13. 

7 vdj\ ir wdf ‘if . , . . not \ 73. 

U'Mtv * vessel-stands 1 , 60. 

ilv/« ‘to sever; 43- 

tod **' P wdy 'cattle left to graze; 67 

xvdtnvy meaning obscure, 75. SO. 

/V-tf r /. meaning obscure, 86, 
bi t 82; irt bi t 82. 
bl-i ‘character; 82. 
bii f firmament' ‘heaven 1 , 82 footnote. 
bii-w ‘mine; 82 footnote. 
biid ‘wonder 1 , 82. 
b!i-t\ m hiid 'no 1 , 52. 
b>nv-t , a kind of stone, 39; ‘corn* 
rubber! 39 
bti ‘to run 1 , ioS. 
bit, obscure word, 31. 
bt 'to run; 108; 'to abandon 1 , 108. 

/W, a kind of cake, 6r. 
pxo-tt i t see ptL 
pf ' that', of past time* 74. 
pr hi-/ thronged(?)', 51. 
pr-rt, plural of//■ 'house; 57. 
pyl-/ ‘carpet 1 , 73. 
pk-t ‘fine linen! 73. 
pti ‘what?; 33. 

pth ‘to cast down 1 (cf. mogi), 65. 
pd-t 'a foreign tribe; 31. 
pdt-y ‘bowman^:)', 24. 

Fi-t 'carrying', 20. 

\fn ‘to be in affliction' 70—71; see 
too sftl. 

/hi 'cake , 41. 

Minr = mi i } 37- 

mi t enclitic particle after impera¬ 
tives, J05. 

liidoJi of wortk in the nule*A 

tnitiW * herdsman', 67; m euphori¬ 
cally, Si. 

mik-t Aw-/* to protect one's limbs', 
r>7. 92. 

f the Houses of the Thirty\ 5a 
rmr 'happy', spelt mint, 46. 
mfh* to pass .grain) through a sieve 1 , 
9 »- 

fti/tw 'plantation', 88. 

waft ‘to arrange' heads on a t lire ad, 

H. 113. 

J/jV, Goddess of Music, 59. 
w-/ 'band 1 of cloth, 40, 
mvr-l 'street', 50. 
uth to bind’, 87 —Rtf, 
mhr-ir 'business’ 'ordinance' 'provi¬ 
sions', IQ2—JGj 

;//,v Modi’ Menu', particle, 21—23, 
w/A7//f {ms/A r to turn round 1 , 27. 

X 'in exchange for T + 63, 
tti-i ‘hall’, 40. 

ni 'to shrink from(r/ 27—28. 

‘U}\ termination, too, 
tnry 'to gather together', 67, 
aY 'possessor' of the heart, io_i; nb 
r d/% of the king, 93, 
nf 'wrong 1 , 44- 
afr td 'happy 1 , 34. 

//// Mol', negativing a single word,99. 
utij'-w the tired ones’, designation 
of the dead, 56. 
nhp hr -to care for , 103* 
nhpw 'morning', iOj. 10G; w ttAp:^ 73. 

to pray for' children, 36. 
nhi-t lb 'sadness'?)’, 82. 

>///£-/' neck'; hrdw nzr uhb-t ' children 
in iirmsi;)', 113. 

/////> 'potter's wheel', 27, 
uhzr-t 'mourning 1 , 26. 

//£?//(?), doubtful word, 23. 

/rfir 'to meditate r , 1 oI, 
tty 'to break open', 50, 

Wr a7/, meaning obscure, 35, 

v//'belongs to it 1 , 73. 

ttdr tp-rd*\Q observe regulations77. 

AV;^ Egyptians', 21, 
nlttH , a plant, 33 — 34. 

//f/V /Wtv ///'common property, 49. 

//? .. t'i 'would that 

'tiim', Si. i o5. 

J)-*W(r) wj't 'the (six} great Hou¬ 
ses 1 , 51. 

//i-/ 'tomb', 26. 
h 3 <-yt 'civil strife', 34, 

//iri; followed by a genitive, 41, 

Z/i/ Ad hr' to keep silence about ', 104. 
Z/*/r = //i, 37. 

//i/'Stf ‘plunderer’, 27, 

/ri/Z 'garment* (cf- oofrit), 89. 
hi sdb 'to repress evils(f)', 82. 

ZY 'to tread of roads, 38, 

J/w 'Taste', 85. 
fnv-nj* r hr 'lighten?)*, S3. 
hb-yt 'festival spices (?) r 33. 
hut, particle, 87. \ 13, 

Am-w 'rudder', 87. 
hm-y helmsman 1 , 87. 113, 
htu 'ski I led \ 38, 

At/tigi-t 'camel iaiT, 31. 
hurt 'to provide', 61, 
hnhyl 'bed 1 , 63. 

hr t preposition, with ellipse of dd 
'say', 20, 

hr Mace 1 : dl hr 'to comm and', 106, 
Hr 'Horus', 'in the time of'j 20, 
hr-v r 3 'in the mouth of, 84. 
hhy c io seek*; m /thy }l d> 'with in¬ 
genuity of mind’, 97, 
hswH 'nation 1 , for purificatory pur¬ 
poses, 76. 

ltd 'to be destroyed', passive or in¬ 
transitive, 41 ; with infinitive as 
subject, 72; 'to destroy' people, 73. 
htj hbszr 'white of clothes’, 27, 

Add 'white cloth', 73. 

1/3 Mi wan 1 , 48. 

A 3 ^-y 'benighted 1 , 44. 

A 3 bb t see h 3 bb. 

A 3 r-j% connected with hird 'widow', 


inrs mr 'to build a pyramid', 88. 
hwd 'rich 1 , 61. 

Abb oil-jar 1 , to. 
hPP r strange97. 

Apr- r L p ‘changes', J02. 

fifth*.* H ‘enemies of the land', 53. 

hm\ m Aw 'without', 73. 

A mm 'unknown 1 , 55. 97. 
hn-yt f musicians \ 40* 
httu 'belaboured withf?)’ blows, 44. 
Aitr-J t and similar words, 46—47, 

Ant ^7* ^j)- and similar words, 4^ 


hnit 'crocodile', 43. 

1 15 

hnftsj\ r Aui'iit 'out' ‘forth’, 49. 
ht t3 'throughout the land', 21, 102. 
hi 'fire', metaphorically, 8 l. 

/f-t ‘generation , 82, 

Ad ip-1 'the first generation . 82. 100. 
Aibb, meaning doubtful, 10S, 

Hum-™ * Khnum , as the potter who 
creates mankind, 24. 
httm-i v 'citizens 1 , 35 
huu-w 'twlimitT 4 5- 
As 3 -yt, a variety ofNubian spice(fj,46. 

, S3 'hack'; rdi ±3 r 'to annuT, 103. 
s 3 jv'the son of a well-born man*, 30. 
s 3 r-f, meaning doubtful, 89 — 90. 
s 3 r-t 'uiulerslanding93* 
s 3 r-y 'ncedy(r) 1 , 82—83, 
s 3 hu* ‘neighbours 1 1 dependents(r/, 

68 - 69* 

st 'man 1 , reading of, 30 footnote. 

SI 3 ‘Knowledge , 85. 
s?u 'to wash down' food m 'with' 
drink, 43. 

stHi 'to re]iress', 74. 
jtv J day of the month', 77. 
suu 'to be in pain 1 , 41; see too ss^mt. 
swk 'to boast, 28, 
sivlk in tlie litlc iwv-r 3 swt/w{:? t 

szrd 3 'to die \ 95. 

sb-w 26. 183. 

sb/-r 3 y) 'pasl speech(?)’, 97. 

sbt 'to laugh 1 , 35. 

sphr 'to register 1 corn, 70. 

s/h ( to atflict', IOO; sec too ///. 

sft 'oil ’cedar-oil 1 grf. cube; ciqt), 33. 

sw 'deed 'event 1 , 46. 

sud 'answer^) 1 , 108. 

s/t 'to s[>read out\ 90. 

stt, title(?), 97. 

sa-f u tuwt-/ 'brother by the same 
mother', 44. 

sh r 'to be like 1 'imitate' 'conform 
to86. 100. 

sti-w v su-yi) ‘flagstaff's 1 , 76. 
su-mut 'distress 1 ‘calamity103, 
-subz l 1 , in compunnd names, 97. 
j^/'last year’ (cf cuov-p, 102. 
sum to be sad 1 , 23. J06. 
stuff; transitive verb of obscure mean- 

i»g. s 3 - 

stun ‘to feed 1 ‘feed on', 63. 
sum "lo sufter’, 40. 104. 

$>ihi 'tu make dangerousy)' 'endan¬ 
ger^)’, 4S. 


G a Mint r | Tht Admonitions of an KgypLian £>a^c. 

1 } 6 

stid 'fear'; m srd it, H snd //, 65- 
snvrf pi-ud Mo perpetuate bread- 
offerings', 76. 

s//$ 'to be in confusion) 2S. 
sk ■? Mo he ungratefnl(?)*, 20. 
jfyl 'to remember', followed by in* 
iinitivc, 75; Mo mention', 99. 
shry\ Ird sfj/ty Mo rest', \ 0 $. 
sfjti-u* * incantations (?)\ 48. 
sfjr~u*' bowls full to overflowing^?)’,58* 
s/js-tv 'runners', 42. 

Mo strain* 'squeeze out’, 98. 
sswti lb 'corruption of heart;?)*, 77; 
See 100 

.oMe-? Mo impoverish*, 54, 69; sec too 
sSr, see }sr. 

sLdly?) Mo plaster", 76; see too klh. 
sft + t obscure verb, 73. 

s/ k 'f 'ox for ploughing) 68. 
shy 'battle', 20, 
sk+u' 'squadrons', 20. 
spy- 'quiet' r peace', 103; nfr-tV spry 
the gods, 103. 
si 'goose\ 76* 
st-t ' ground (?)) 90. 

A 7 /V 'Asiatics", 91, 

sty-t Mo pour water 1 , 55, 

stn-yw 'butchers', 64. 

sty-/ Mo generate 3 , 83, 

sdzrfj Mo embalm* t 33. 

sdfi; hr sdb Mo repress evils', 82. 

sdhi Mo go* to the tomb, 95. 

S^i 'poor 1 , 24. 

AlO')*/ 'shadow', 59. 

Ibid Mo regulate 1 (cf. upfcr), 77. 

(i/\r-/)'noble man (woman)', 25* 
spssT 1' 'good things', 25, 

i/yd 'reverence 1 , 103, 
ifdyt 'bier f , 54 
h/t-ir 1 incantations;?)", 48. 
hi, meaning obscure* 29. 

}yr Mo say) 101. 
isr 'saying 1 , IOI. 
a at 'tongue \ id. 

f/t 'secret 1 ; s-f $ft-t the secret 
place) 38. 

W-tc'j meaning obscure, 40. 66. 

AM)' (iii) 1 fruitv?/ p 45 
fchtr = £i.f 'high ground) 37. 
kih 'Nilt-mutT (cf. w*.*), 76; see too 
sklh ij). 

kn Mo end) 33. 

hi 'mat) 73. 

ht- 7 i' powerful men’, 26. 

Krh-t 'Serpent-goddess’, 53. 
hi ‘character"; nh hi Mhe virtuous 
man', 2\ 

kdf'to cull T 'pluck' (cf. ut»>vq\ 97. 

Mhen\ particle, uses of, 81. 
L'H} 'plant 1 , 86. 

Kf>uy 1 Hyblos", 33. 

k /3 ih, a good quality, 27. 

Kftiw 'Crete*, 33. 

JLs ‘to bend 1 , writing of, 104. 

Giw-i 'wart 1 Mack', 56. 
pm, a bird, 26. 

pmpm Mo tear asunder' 'break 1 * 32. 
prg fir Mo rely upon 1 , 10S. 
ghs 1 box* for clothes, 62. 

Tlw J hot-headed (?)', 42. 
if ltd 'dregs', 58, 

(he Mo say yes) 51. 

if- 'before', as conjunction, 95. 

iifi, negative verb, construction of, 25, 
if/i l(//r), the scribes of the, 49. 
in 'where?* (cf. twti), 42. 
i'ny 'Tliinis 1 , 34. 

tuhh Mo shrink* 'swerve 1 , 67. 103—4. 
1 r > 

thb to immerse f soak’ p 75. 

V'ih-i a kind of corn, CS* 

[Br Mo keep safe) 89. 
is shi' J aciem msUutie', 20, 

J)i Mo give*; di ttt Mo btiryf:)) 
30; dr H Mo speak', 104; dr hr 
Mo command) ioC. 
dtud ' servants (?)', 72. 
dp-t 'taste 1 metaphorically, 41. 
dpipid-t 'ship', of state, 29; dp^'-t 
utr 'divine ship\ 33. 
das 'heavy* metaphorically, 40* 102. 
dr Mo repel*; dr shr Mo suppress 
writings", 49; dr /;v 'repress 
wrongs) 83. 
dp Mo conceal** 38. 

f )3 < Mo stretch forth the arm" 
against* 82. 
di-Vt 'robes’, ;8. 
dhft-i 'harp 1 , 59. 
d<b‘i 'charcoal 1 , 34. 
dud 'angry', \ 0 J. 
dr: rd> r dr t of the king, 93. 
dr 'wall(r)* masculine, 28. 
dr-t Mvall' (cf 3:0, -sod, 28, 58. 
drt ' stolid (?) ’ p 107. 
dr-yt 'chamber\ 2S. 
dr-wt 'sarcophagus', 28. 
drdr<c, an evil quality, 106. 
dd Mo say 1 ; n dd with infinitive Mo 
refuse 20. 



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